Preparation Of DPR
And
How To Monitor The
Construction Works
On Technical Aspect.
Preparation of DPR
DPR is the based document for
planning and implementing the
project.
DPR indicates the technical and
financial strategies to be adopted
for implementation.
Preparation of DPR
DPR is broadly comprised of following things.
Project background.
Project definition, concept and scope
Project cost
Project institution framework.
Project financial structuring
Project phasing
Project O & M framework and planning
Project financial viability / sustainability.
Project benefits assessments.
Project Background
It narrates the necessity and aim
of the project.
Existing status of the physical
infrastructure.
Base line information of users.
Project definition, concept and scope
The project concept comprises of several
issues like :-
Land
Environment impact assessment
Environment management plan
Rehabilitation and Resettlement
Details of surveys and investigation
Disaster related risk assessment and
countermeasures.
Project Cost
The project cost should clearly indicate covering all
following factors:
Land acquisition / site development
Physical infrastructure component-wise
cost
Environmental compliance cost
Rehabilitation & resettlement cost
Cost of survey & investigations
Cost of shifting utilities
Cost of consultancy services
Finance / interest cost
Contingency
Project Institution framework.
The DPR needs to provide :
Role of institutions involved in the Project
A Roles / responsibility matrix
Innovative approaches for better coordination between ULB and state
government department.
Manner of undertaking construction
works
Involvement of the construction agency in
the O & M activities
Project Institution framework.
 Area of involvement of the private sector
in the construction phase of feasibility
study, engineering design, specialized
surveys, construction works, supervision
consultants,
Quality
Assurance
Consultants or any other assignments
 Brief description of strategy for the
overall works program including tender
process.
Project Financial structuring
DPR must indicate the composition of
fund.
Central Government.
State Government.
ULBs
Loan component, Private Investment etc.
will have to be shown in the DPR.
Project Financial structuring
Private participation can be utilized in
ULB or State share.
Private contribution can be recovered
against O & M in the shape of user
charges.
The billing and collection of user
charges can be entrusted with the
Private Agencies.
Project Financial structuring
Linking construction with O & M
performance contract could provide the
advantage of operational cost efficiency.
Private sector financing in the project is
a well accepted approach under JnNURM
as it curtails the financial burden on
Govt. and Municipal fund.
Project Phasing
Project Activity Schedule to be indicated.
Schedule for tendering.
Schedule for State and ULB
contribution
Schedule for all clearances.
Schedule for shifting utilities
Schedule for implementation of
project components
Project O & M planning
The DPR should indicate :-
The institution to be engaged in the O&M
Existing system of billing and collection.
Brief analysis of the key issues and
obstacles .
Scope of private entity in O&M.
The requirements of manpower, energy,
spares etc. for O&M with proposed
additional requirement.
Tariff model, existing rate for all categories
and forecast growth over the next 20 years.
Project Financial viability / sustainability
.
The DPR is to provide information in
Municipal level.
Cash flow :
A complete cash flow covering the last 5
(five) years and projections for the next 20
(twenty) years.
An assessment of the annual impact of
the project on the Municipal finances.
Project Financial viability / sustainability
Debt situation assessment :
Debt schedules and terms for all debt
taken.
Debt service coverage ratio
Debt-equity ratio for the project and the
ULB
Other financial information :
Credit rating details.
Project Benefits assessments
DPR is to provide the following :
List of benefits (both social &
economic)
Benefits are to be assessed on
project outcomes and project outlays
covering impact on citizen.
Project benefits assessments
List of adverse impacts on following aspects:
Pollution, environmental distortions
Reduced green cover
Reduced access to any specific user segments
Supply interruptions etc.
Displacement of inhabitants
Disruption in livelihood / reduced employment
Possible haphazard development around /
adjacent project site areas
Preparation of DPR
on
Municipal Solid
Waste Landfill
Selection of Landfill site
 Criteria :
Lake or Pond : No landfill should be
constructed within 200m of any lake or pond.
River : No landfill within 100 m of a navigable
river or stream.
Flood Plain : No landfill within a 100 year flood
plain.
Highway : No landfill within 200 m of the right
of way of any highway. Trees and berms are used
to screen the landfill site.
Selection of Landfill site
Habitation : A landfill site should be at least
500 m from a notified habitated area. A zone of
500 m around a landfill boundary should be
declared a No-Development Buffer Zone.
Public Parks : No landfill within 300 m.
Wetlands : No landfill within wetlands.
Ground water : No landfill in areas where
water table is less than 2 m below ground
surface.
Selection of Landfill site
Airports : No landfill within 5 miles from
Airport Operational Area.
Water Supply Well : No landfill within 500 m
of any water supply well.
Unstable Zone : A landfill should not be
located in potentially unstable zones such as
landslide prone areas.
Buffer Zone : A landfill should have a buffer
zone around it
Land fill
DPR on landfill will have following contents
Introduction
Present Status
Site Characteristics
Landfill Design Facilities
Land fill Design Features and Site Plan
Landfill Construction
Landfill Closure
Monitoring Requirement
Costing
Landfill
Introduction :
This is the introductory brief of activities
to be performed for landfill.
Also this is a review of landfill
development process to ensure a landfill is
constructed, operated and maintained in
environmental friendly manner.
Land fill
Present Status :
It narrates the present generation
of solid waste, collection system,
transportation
and
dumping
method.
Landfill
Site Characteristics :
 It is the description of proposed
land, its area, topography, access
facility,
climate,
rainfall,
temperature, humidity, ground
water status, surface water and
drainage system, soil properties etc.
Landfill Design Facilities
The essential basic steps for
landfill design are
Landfill sizing
Site layout
Landfill layout
Leachate management
Landfill gas management
:
Landfill construction
1st layer – 50 cm thick compacted soil
2nd layer – Geo-synthetic clay liner
3rd layer – 1.5 mm HDPE Geo-membrane
Landfill construction
4th Layer – 30 cm thick gravel. The
gravels should be smooth, and
round of 12 – 15 mm in size.
Leachate collection system of
perforated HDPE leachate collection
pipe embedded in this gravel layer
Landfill construction
5th layer – Geo-textile for filtration.
6th layer – Finally a 300 mm thick soil on
the Geo-textile as a protective layer
Leachate will go to leachate treatment
plant for reduction of BOD, COD and
suspended solids.
Daily waste is leveled, compacted and
covered with fresh earth to give a pleasing
appearance and also to prevent odours.
Landfill Closure
Waste will have to be graded to the necessary
stable slopes.
 1st layer - 200 mm thick gravel to release gas
through gas vents.
2nd layer - 600 mm soil.
3rd layer - 1 mm thick HDPE liner to control
water leaching into soil layer.
4th layer - 150 mm thick gravel for drainage.
5th layer - Geo-textile to keep the soil layer
separated.
6th layer - 450 mm thick soil for vegetation.
Monitoring Requirement
Ground water quality monitoring within 50 mtr.
periphery of landfill site shall be periodically
monitored.
Ambient air quality monitoring will have to
carried 4 (four) times in a year around the site.
Portable methane detection units are available
for the purpose.
The air quality must be monitored for 15
(fifteen) years after the closure of the landfill.
Surface water monitoring around the site is also
necessary.
Cost
For all activities to be performed
detailed estimate on the basis of
engineering details will have to be
prepared to determine the project cost.
How To Monitor
The Construction
Works On
Technical Aspect
Construction Monitoring
It is the process to monitor and control the
activities associated with initiating, planning,
executing, and closing a project.
Problems during execution should be
identified in a timely manner for immediate
corrective measures.
Construction must be monitored and
measured regularly to identify deviations
from the plan.
Construction Monitoring
Free site must be ensured before any
work is taken up.
Site of construction is to be identified to
ensure flawless layout of the work.
Mobilization of manpower, materials,
equipments and resources is most
essential.
Construction Monitoring
Monitoring is needed to ensure proper
management on following issues :
Cost
Quality
Risk
Construction Monitoring
Cost Management :
It is necessary to perform cost
control process of influencing the
factors that create changes to the
basic cost to ensure that the changes
are beneficial and according to exact
requirement of the work.
Construction Monitoring
Quality Management :
It is necessary that the quality of the
work is properly ensured in terms of
materials and workmanship
Quality Management
Quality of materials will have to be ensured
before work is taken up : Bricks : Bricks shall be sound, hard,
homogenous in texture.
Bricks shall have a minimum crushing strength
of 105 kg/sq.cm.
Bricks should have ringing sound if struck
Brick absorbing more than 20% of its dry weight
after 24 hrs. immersion shall be rejected.
Quality Management
Sand is the fine aggregate, which shall
pass through IS: sieve designation 4.75
mm, leaving a residue not more than
10%.
Sand should be collected from local
river beds
 Sand shall not contain more than 8%
of silt. It should be clean, hard and sharp.
Quality Management
Stone aggregate : This shall be broken
from good hard stone boulder and shall
be free from soft, friable, thin, elongated
or laminated pieces.
This shall be roughly cubical in shape
and shall be clear and free from dirt and
any other foreign matter.
Quality Management
Steel :
Presently we use TMT (Thermo
Mechanically Treated) steel of various
brands.
BIS Certification Marking should be
checked in each bundle of bars before
use.
Quality Management
Cement : Net weight of each bag of cement
shall be 50 kg.
Cement stored for over 6 (six) months
shows signs of deterioration or contamination
and should be tested before use.
OPC cement and PPC cement are generally
used for construction.
OPC conforms to IS: 269-1989 and PPC
conforms to IS: 1489-1991
Quality Management
Concrete consistency :
The quantity of water to be used for
each mix of 50 kg. cement shall not be
more than 34 ltr. for 1:3:6 mix, 32 ltr. for
1:2:4 mix., 30 ltr. for 1:1:2 mix.
For vibrated concrete the limit specified
may be suitably reduced.
Quality Management
Curing :
Curing of concrete shall be done after 24
hrs. of laying with moist gunny bags, sand
etc. for a minimum period of 7(seven) days.
Concrete should not be disturbed by
further construction during the curing
period.
Risk Management
Four steps to risk management are :
Risk Identification
Risk analysis
Risk management planning and
Risk review
Risk should be reviewed periodically with the
related persons so that it can be faced and
tackled on time
Thank You
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Preparation Of DPR & How To Monitor The Construction Works On