Why the Internet Future Scares Me and How Scalability is the
Only Survivor
Vinod Chandramouli
Technology Evangelist, Connected Devices
Grow revenue opportunities with fast, personalized
web experiences and manage complexity from peak
CORPORATE
We are the leading provider of cloud
demand, mobile
devicesSTATS:
and data collection.
$1.6B
5,000
5,000
2,000
services for delivering, optimizing
and securing online content and
business applications.
Revenue
Employees
Customers
Locations
OUR HISTORY:
Founded 1998 and rooted in MIT
technology—solving Internet congestion
with math not hardware.
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARD
TM
©2014 AKAMAI | FASTER FORWARDTM
The Akamai
Intelligent Platform
Grow revenue opportunities with fast, personalized
web experiences and manage complexity from ™
peak
demand, mobile devices and data collection.
Delivers
overcloud
2 trillion
Internet
A distributed
platform
that manages
transactions
daily
the underlying
complexities of the Internet–
• single
Devicehop
andaway
format
proliferation
A
from
90% of Internet users
• Application and network security
• Performance and reliability issues
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARD
TM
©2014 AKAMAI | FASTER FORWARDTM
1. List compiled by Fortune Magazine
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
80% of all IP traffic will
be video by 2018
Abandonment begins
2 seconds after
start-up time
18,000+ distinct Android
devices — 58% more
than last year
QUALITY EXPECTATIONS ARE ON THE RISE
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
What a Difference a Few Years Makes…
63% CAGR
Winter Olympics
Avoid data theft and downtime by extending the
security perimeter outside the data-center and
protect from increasing frequency, scale and
sophistication of web attacks.
FIFA World Cup
12
81
29
222
PETABYTES
IN 2010
PETABYTES
IN 2014
PETABYTES
IN 2010
PETABYTES
IN 2014
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
Growing Viewership
7,000x
7 Tbps
81% CAGR!
444 Gbps
World Cup
Avoid data theft and downtime by extending the
security perimeter outside the data-center and
1.4 Tbps
protect from increasing frequency, scale and
1.3 Tbps
sophistication of web attacks.
1.08 Tbps
4G
LTE
1Gbps
<1 Gbps 15.9 Gbps
1999
2002
21.0 Gbps
2004
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
2012
2013
2014+
GRAND CHALLENGE FOR MEDIA
The ultimate in video
quality over IP at scale
Grow revenue opportunities with fast, personalized
web experiences and manage complexity from peak
demand, mobile devices and data collection.
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
Quality Is Increasing
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
Traffic Growth on Akamai’s Platform
>26 Tbps
30
12,000
Peak Tbps
10,000
>60% CAGR
Avoid data theft and downtime by extending the
security perimeter outside the data-center and
protect from increasing frequency, scale and
sophistication of web attacks.
8,000
20
6,000
4,000
10
2,000
0
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
2014
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
Delivering Quality at Scale
2013 peak will be
2014 norm
>26 Tbps
2012 peak becomes
2013 norm
20 Tbps
2011 peak becomes
2012 norm
10 Tbps
0
1 Year
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
Traffic Growth on Akamai’s Platform
>26
Tbps
FUTURE DEMAND
30
12,000
Peak Tbps
10,000
2.5B Primetime
Avoid data theft Viewers
and downtime by extending the
security perimeter outside the data-center and
CAGR
10 Mbps
protect fromxincreasing
frequency, scale and
>60%
8,000
20
6,000
sophistication of web attacks.
~25,000 Tbps
4,000
10
2,000
0
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
2014
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
~2020
WILL VIDEO BREAK
THE INTERNET?
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
The Scalability Challenge
Avoid data theft and downtime by extending the
security perimeter outside the data-center and
protect from increasing frequency, scale and
sophistication of web attacks.
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
The Last Mile Has Enormous Capacity
400M Lines
X 25 Mbps
Avoid data theft and downtime by extending the
security perimeter outside the data-center and
protect from increasing frequency, scale and
sophistication of web attacks.
10,000 Tbps
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
The Problem is at the Core
Cloud Data Centers
100 Major Networks
X 5 Tbps
Avoid data theft and downtime by extending the
security perimeter outside the data-center and
protect from increasing frequency, scale and
sophistication of web attacks.
500 Tbps
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
The Problem is at the Core
Cloud Data Centers
500 Tbps
2%
Avoid data theft and downtime by extending the
security perimeter outside the data-center and
protect from increasing frequency, scale and
sophistication of web attacks.
25,000 Tbps
=
of what
we need!
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
Akamai’s Edge Strategy Today: Inside Over 1,200 Networks
Akamai Servers
Avoid data theft and downtime by extending the
security perimeter outside the data-center and
protect from increasing frequency, scale and
sophistication of web attacks.
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
THE FUTURE: Further Extending the Akamai Edge: Moving Into Homes
Avoid data theft and downtime by extending the
security perimeter outside the data-center and
protect from increasing frequency, scale and
sophistication of web attacks.
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
Delivery Innovation: Next Generation Networks
Akamai’s Innovation Initiative to Address
Online Video’s Grand Challenge
Hybrid
HTTP/UDP
Acceleration
Predictive
Video Over
Cellular
Akamai Media Client
Core Services
API
IP Relay
Cache
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
The Technical Challenge: Poor Network Conditions
Network conditions begin to deteriorate when
• Packet loss is > 1%
• Latency is > 150ms
Factors that contribute to poor network conditions include:
• Home network routers
• Geographically remote users
• Cellular connections
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
Packet Loss Breakdown By Country*
Edge To End User
Percentage of users experiencing > 0.67% packet loss
US
Japan
Great Britain
Germany
France
100%
Canada
46.4%
55.5%
47.8%
50.2%
Mexico
Italy
Egypt
Brazil
80.6%
78.3%
47.7%
90%
China
59.2%
40.5%
52.5%
63.1%
India
75.7%
80%
70%
>4%
4%
60%
2.67%
1.67%
0.67%
50%
0.33%
0.25%
40%
0.17%
0.08%
30%
20%
10%
0%
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
Largest Improvements
* Loss Modeled On Measured Retransmission Rate Reduced By 1/3
Hybrid UDP Protocol
•
Hybrid HTTP/UDP protocol.
•
Helps overcome TCP inefficiencies
•
Reduces Video Latency and Buffer
Time.
•
Improves download and start up times
•
Works for content delivered over the
Akamai platform
•
Application
HTTP
TCP
HTTP proxy style
interface
Astraeus Hybrid
HTTP + UDP
Internet Protocol (IP)
Built-in Multicast support
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
Astraeus Workflow
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
Integration Options
Connected Device Stack
App
App layer integration.
App
Astraeus SDK
Application Framework
Astraeus SDK
Service layer
integration.
Services / Libraries
Standard HTTP
OS
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
— DEMO —
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
Predictive Video Over Cellular
Video over Cellular. No one is happy.
Mobile Subscribers
•
•
Mobile Operators
Want better and more consistent
experience
Are constrained by data caps
Content Providers
•
•
•
•
Cannot control content flow or demand
Cannot work with each content provider
Look to better utilize their network
Need to reduce cost of delivery
•
•
•
•
Look to improve monetization
Expecting better QoE
Hurt by data caps
Cannot negotiate with each carrier
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
Mobile Network Utilization
Network
Utilization
Cellular
5 minutes window
• Cellular networks are about 50% utilized during peak times
• Surplus capacity can be utilized through controlled demand and represents a
significant monetization opportunity
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
Solution Concept
50% unutilized cellular
capacity
Carriers want to be creative
when selling the next GB
+25 GB available
device storage
…
Zero cost capacity
opportunity
..
Better mobile experience
significantly changes usage
patterns and affect ad revenue
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
High level architecture
Content Download
Prediction
Network Load
Prediction
Storage & Battery
Management
Content Download
Prediction
Cellular
Wi-Fi
Network Load
Prediction
ANDSF Server
Media Player
ANDSF Client
Core Functionality:
1. Cellular network load prediction
2. Content download prediction
3. ANDSF
4. Media Player
5. Billing integration (Zero rating)
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
— DEMO —
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
Akamai’s IP Relay TURN Service
Peer-to-Peer is Predicted to Explode
•
HTML5 & WebRTC has standardized peer-to-peer communications
•
WebRTC enabled devices is growing
•
A TURN solution will be required to transverse firewalls between these WebRTC
connections
APPLICATIONS
Real-time Communications
WebRTC Enable Devices (in billions)
7
CHATTING
6
5
GAMING
4
3
SALES &
SUPPORT
2
1
CONFERENCING
Q4'18
Q3'18
Q2'18
Q1'18
Q4'17
Q3'17
Q2'17
Q1'17
Q4'16
Q3'16
Q2'16
Q1'16
Q4'15
Q3'15
Q2'15
Q1'15
Q4'14
Q3'14
Q2'14
Q1'14
0
Source: Google, Disruptive Analysis, & ABI Research
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
TURN Inefficiencies
Problem: Peer-to-peer connections are
complicated by NAT devices (address- and
address-port mapping). If both peers
behind a NAT, they may not be able to talk
directly.
Problem: TURN service can significantly
impact performance when either of the
end-points are far away from the
centralized TURN server.
Problem: Geographically dispersed clients
can have performance issues even when
connecting directly due to long latency and
packet loss.
TURN
Server
Firewall B
Client B
Solution: Akamai's IP Relay service provides
an improved, fully distributed TURN-like
service
• Global deployment, fault-tolerant
technology
• Akamai's famed network knowledge
• SureRoute™ technology to find better
routes than the Internet
• Improve Performance: UDP encoding
over the long "middle mile”
Firewall A
Client A
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
Akamai IP Relay Service
Problem: Peer-to-peer connections are
complicated by NAT devices (address- and
address-port mapping). If both peers
behind a NAT, they may not be able to talk
directly.
Problem: TURN service can significantly
impact performance when either of the
end-points are far away from the
centralized TURN server.
Problem: Geographically dispersed clients
can have performance issues even when
connecting directly due to long latency and
packet loss.
TURN
Server B
Firewall B
Client B
Solution: Akamai's IP Relay service provides
an improved, fully distributed TURN-like
service
• Global deployment, fault-tolerant
technology
• Akamai's famed network knowledge
• SureRoute™ technology to find better
routes than the Internet
• Improve Performance: UDP encoding
over the long "middle mile”
TURN
Server A
Firewall A
Client A
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
How does the IP Relay service work?
Customer
Directory
Service
Firewall A
Client A
EDGE A
Clients : Each Client is engaging in peer-to-peer communication. The
clients will typically have a private IP address that is not publicly
routable. Akamai serves as a globally distributed TURN service
Directory service: A customer owned and operated directory service
that functions as a backend communication path for exchange of
information required for connection establishment.
Client B
EDGE B
Firewall B
Clients Connect To Akamai Edge: Akamai determines the ideal
Edge server for each client, providing the best connection into the
Akamai Network
Akamai Optimizes traffic between Edges: The IPA network
optimizes the connection by reducing latency and improving
throughput, providing both clients a better experience
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
Relative Call Distances by Country/Geography
Distance Key (miles)
Long Haul
Call Volume (millions)
• 29% of all video calls are estimated to be
“Long Haul” (3000+ miles apart) where latency
and packet loss can be significantly higher
Long Haul
Long Haul
Long Haul
Long Haul
United
States
Europe
Asia
Country/Geography
United
Kingdom
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
China
Measuring IP Relay Quality
Akamai Agent based Quality Testing Framework
S
E
L
S
F
O
Test Agent
Test Agent
Data
Collector
- Internet
Connection
- “Akamaized” Relay
Connection
Internet
L
O
N
H
K
G
Test Agent
Test Agent
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
Data
Collector
Akamai Agent based Test Background
• Test Agents conduct IP Relay video calls in 15 cities across 10 countries
worldwide
• 1,152 video calls between test agents per day city to city through IP Relay
• Latency & packet loss captured across actual customer calls & public Internet
Test Agent Locations:
Netanya, IL Paris, FR
Seattle, US San Mateo, US
Krakow, PL Cambridge, US
Seoul, KR Hong Kong, CN
Dallas, US
Los Angeles, US Beijing, CN Tokyo, JP
Munich, DE New York, US
London, UK
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
Packet Loss
Why Packet Loss Matters
Effects of Packet Loss on H.264 video codec
0% Packet Loss
5% Packet Loss
Effects of Packet Loss
Video: “Blocky” video and a frozen or jerky end user experience.
Audio: Stutter or intermittent speech.
Experience: Lower resolution video
Add skype video stats
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
Akamai IP Relay Reduces Packet Loss on Long Haul Calls
Best
<-Case -> < --Acceptable -- Unacceptable ->
>
Packet Loss (%)
Packet loss on “long haul” calls
reduced to sub-1%
Packet Loss metrics shown are
end to end, including last mile
call segments beyond the IP
relay.
Many test calls are nearly devoid
of packet loss.
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
Key
Internet Loss
Akamaized
Latency
Akamai Improves Latency on Long Haul Calls by up to 35%
• Increased latency resulting in callers frequently talking over one another reduced
effectiveness compared to audio calls
Acceptable
Gold Standard
150 ms
Unacceptable
300 ms
For intrinsically high latency connections,
unless packet loss is tightly constrained, it
Key
becomes practically impossible to maintain
a high quality video call.
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
Akamai Improves Latency on Long Haul Calls by up to 35%
Increased latency resulting in callers frequently talking over one another reduced effectiveness compared to audio
calls
Latency (ms)
<--- Acceptable Unacceptable --->
Many long haul video calls
experience unacceptable
latency over Public Internet
Latency metrics shown are
end to end, including last
mile call segments beyond
the IP relay.
Akamai brings many of these video
calls into the “acceptable” quality
range
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
Key
Internet Latency
Akamaized
— THANK YOU —
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
BACKUP SLIDES
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
Application Integration - Local HTTP Proxy-Like Model
Without The Akamai Client
With The Akamai Client
Host System
(e.g., Android device)
Host System
(e.g., Android device)
Host Application
(e.g., customer’s video app)
Host Application
(e.g., customer’s video app)
Application Core
(e.g., video player, DLM)
HTTP
Akamai
Client Application
Core
HTTP
Requests &
Responses
Akamai
Servers
HTTP Requests & Responses
UDP packet flows
Multicast/AMT Channels
Akamai
Servers
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
Recap of CAD Hybrid HTTP/UDP
•
HTTP/UDP Hybrid Protocol
•
Advanced Congestion Control
•
•
Based on FastTCP
Forward Error Correction (FEC)
•
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
Based on Raptor codes
Charts
Latency: Akamaized vs. Internet Route
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
Packet Loss: Akamaized vs. Internet Route
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
4
12
8
70%
60%
6
50%
Country to Country Packet Loss without Akamai
Percentage Packet Loss Reduction with Akamai
©2013 AKAMAI | Proprietary & Confidential - FASTER FORWARDTM
40%
Country
Country
with
FaceTimetoCountry
to Packet
Country Loss
Packet
LossAkamai
with Akamai
30%
20%
2
10%
0%
Packet Loss Improvement
0
krakow
beijing
beijing
paris
beijing
netanya
seoul
krakow
paris
seoul
sanmateo
seoul
seoul
netanya
seoul
dallas
beijing
dallas
seattle
seattle
beijing
seoul
sanmateo
beijing
sanmateo
netanya
losangeles
seoul
losangeles
beijing
paris
tokyo
netanya
netanya
tokyo
beijing
seattle
netanya
hongkong
krakow
paris
hongkong
sanmateo
hongkong
krakow
sanmateo
hongkong
netanya
hongkong
losangeles
beijing
hongkong
tokyo
hongkong
paris
krakow
sanmateo
losangeles
seattle
hongkong
paris
krakow
sanmateo
sanmateo
tokyo
dallas
seoul
losangeles
dallas
hongkong
losangeles
seoul
Packet Loss (%)
Akamai Significantly Reduces Video Call Packet Loss
Up to 30% of Calls Improved by More Than 50%
100%
90%
10
80%