Geography of Its History
 Chinese 2nd century  Bagdad (8th?)  Spain & Sicily
(10th – 12th century)  France & Germany (15th century,
printing revolution)  advanced paper making in 19th
Trees & Paper
 Both hardwood & softwood trees used to make paper,
but in the United States come mostly from softwood
forests-mostly pine-in the South and West.
 Tree-made paper accounts for over 90% of the world's
paper production
 World consumption of paper has grown four hundred
percent in the last 40 years
Tree & Paper
 Wood stacked 4 feet by 4 feet by 8 feet, or 128 cubic
feet) produces nearly 90,000 sheets of paper (Boise
 Tree farms where forests are planted, groomed and
thinned for harvest in 20 to 35 year cycles
 Tree farms supply 16% of all wood used in the paper
industry while the bulk of the rest comes from second
growth forests
The Process
The top 20 forest and paper products companies
International Paper
1898 Memphis, TN
1927 Atlanta, GA
1900 Federal Way, WA
1872 Irving, Texas
Procter & Gamble (Paper)
1837 Cincinnati, Ohio
1974 Creve Coeur, Missouri
Boise (OfficeMax)
1957 Boise, ID
2002 Richmond, Virginia
1893 Austin, Texas.
Bowater Newly AbitibiBowater Inc.
1899 Hartsville, South Carolina
Greenville, South
1997 Carolina
1973 Nashville, Tennessee
Packaging Corp. of America
1959 Lake Forest, IL
Universal Forest Products
1955 Grand Rapids, Michigan
1898 Norcross, Georgia
1903 Spokane, WA
Riverwood International
2002 Atlanta, GA
Plum Creek Timber
1989 Seattle, Washington
1926 Jacksonville, FL
1938 Powder Spring, GA
3,054 Paper Mills in the U.S.
Paper Making & Environment
 Nearly 4 billion trees or 35% of the total trees cut around
the world are used in paper industries on every continent
Millions of pounds of highly toxic chemicals such as
toluene, methanol, chlorine dioxide, hydrochloric acid, and
formaldehyde are released into the air and water
More than 45% of all paper used in the United States is
The rate of harvest for softwood trees in the southern
United States outpaced growth for the first time since 1953
(US Forest Service)
The U.S., which contains only 5% of the world's population,
uses 30% of all paper.
Forest Sustainability
 About 33% of the U.S. land area, or 737 million acres, is forest land.
 Net annual growth exceeds harvests and losses to insects and disease
by an average of 33% each year in commercial forests.
America's forest products companies have donated over 1 million acres
of land (valued at over $400 million) for conservation, recreation, or
social causes.
About 47 million acres (6% of all U.S. forest land) is reserved for parks
and other wilderness areas - no commercial timber harvests are
Since 1952, 4% or about 19 million acres of timberland has been
reclassified as wilderness or parks and no more commercial harvests
are allowed.
The amount of new timber grown is more than the amount of timber
harvested by at least 1/3 (54% in 1976, 38% in 1986, and 34% in 1992).
A ton of recycled paper saves 17 trees?
 1 ton of uncoated virgin (non-recycled) printing and office paper uses 24 trees
 1 ton of 100% virgin (non-recycled) newsprint uses 12 trees
 A "pallet" of copier paper (20-lb. sheet weight, or 20#) contains 40 cartons and
weighs 1 ton. Therefore,
 1 carton (10 reams) of 100% virgin copier paper uses .6 trees
 1 tree makes 16.67 reams of copy paper or 8,333.3 sheets
 1 ream (500 sheets) uses 6% of a tree (and those add up quickly!)
 1 ton of coated, higher-end virgin magazine paper (used for magazines like
National Geographic and many others) uses a little more than 15 trees (15.36)
 1 ton of coated, lower-end virgin magazine paper (used for newsmagazines and
most catalogs) uses nearly 8 trees (7.68)
 1 ton (40 cartons) of 30% postconsumer content copier paper saves 7.2 trees
 1 ton of 50% postconsumer content copier paper saves 12 trees.
 Recycled waste
 Agri-pulp: wheat, oat, barley and other crop stalks left
over after harvesting
 Hemp, Kenaf, sugar cane as wood substitutes, no need
to use chlorine for the bleaching process
Origami Christmas Tree (Pine Tree)

Geography of Paper Making