ELTR 1223
Survey of Renewable
Energy Technology
R.E. Generators:
Hydropower Prime Movers
and Others
Unit 9a
Source:
Use Policy

This material was developed by Timothy J.
Wilhelm, P.E., Kankakee Community College,
with funding from the National Science
Foundation as part of ATE Grant No. 0802786.

All materials in this presentation are designed
and intended for educational use, only. They
may not be used for any publication or
commercial purposes.
Source:
Author, Editors/Reviewers
Author: Timothy J. Wilhelm, P.E., Kankakee
Community College
 Editors/Reviewers / Modifiers:
 Chris Miller Heartland Community College

Source:
Objectives
Students will be able to describe, in very simple
terms, the so-called hydrologic cycle, and its
relationship to hydropower technology.
 Students will be able to name a “kinetic” type of
water turbine, and briefly describe, in very simple
terms, how it operates.
 Students will be able to name a “water-head”
type of water turbine, and briefly describe, in
very simple terms, how it operates.

Source:
Objectives
Students will be able to mathematically convert
feet of water head into pounds-per-square-inch
of pressure
 Students will be able to describe, in very simple
terms, at least one method of extracting energy
from the ocean.

Source:
Hydro Power History
Hydropower History

Hydropower used by the Greeks to turn water
wheels for grinding wheat into flour, more than
2,000 years ago.

Mid-1770s -- French hydraulic and military
engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor wrote
Architecture Hydraulique, a four-volume work
describing vertical- and horizontal-axis machines.
Hydropower History
Source: http://www.uni-bielefeld.de/lili/personen/fleischmann/d_archsuse05/210_constable_mill.jpg
Hydropower History
Hydropower History
Hydro Electric Beginnings
Hydroelectric Beginnings

1880 -- Michigan's Grand Rapids electricity (DC)
generated by a dynamo belted to a water turbine
at the Wolverine Chair Factory, lit up 16 Brusharc lamps.
Hydroelectric Beginnings

1881 -- Niagara Falls city street lamps powered
by a brushed dynamo connected to an old flour
mill drive.
Hydroelectric Beginnings

1882 -- Hydroelectric power plant operating on
the Fox River in Appleton, Wisconsin.
Source: http://kids.americancorners.or.kr/ENG/images/05_history_07_10_01.jpg
The War of the Currents
The Wizard Who Spat on the Floor
Source: http://images1.wikia.nocookie.net/__cb20100410182815/uncyclopedia/images/thumb/c/ce/Edisonx2.jpg/150pxEdisonx2.jpg
The Eccentric Serb
Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/87/Teslathinker.jpg/220px-Teslathinker.jpg
Source: http://www.pbs.org/tesla/res/images/390414_b.gif
Source: http://www.b92.net/news/pics/2006/07/118552926044aa6e07b13ae812180880_200x235.jpg
Source:
http://api.ning.com/files/6Uhv8JceS2ky6Hdh4qxdKFytN5dyrB2D4O0CUpyZCHrOUKLK80jCdtyHeWAuJa945
Y8s14QBfoB0pXnJA-cyJ-RXj6IiMqal/93033884.bin?width=136
“In 1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue…”
The 1893 Columbian Exposition, World’s
Fair, Chicago
Source: http://www.acenor.cl/acenor/pag.gral/documentos/historia_electricidad_archivos/Chicago1.jpg
Niagara Falls – Nov. 16, 1896 –
Westinghouse and Tesla Send Electric Power
to Buffalo, NY
Hydro Power
Fundamentals
Solar Energy + Force of Gravity =
Hydropower
Hydropower Fundamentals

Kinetic-type primer movers



“Water Wheels”
Extract energy from stream-flow
Head or Pressure-type Prime Movers


High (inlet) Elevation – Low (discharge) Elevation =
“Head”
PSI(pressure) = Feet of Water (head) X 0.433


“A pint’s a pound the world around.”
1 Ft3 = 7.48 gallons; 1 gallon = 8.34 pounds

8.34 lbs/gal x 7.48 gal/ft3 x 1 ft2 / 144 in2 = 0.433
Hydropower Fundamentals
Hydro Prime Mover Types:
Head-type Turbines

Low-Head and High-Flow

“Reaction Turbines”




Kinetic turbines (water wheels, and other flow converters)
Propeller turbines
Francis turbines (like a squirrel-cage centrifugal turbine)
High-Head and Low-Flow

“Impulse Turbines”


Pelton Turbines
Cross-flow Turbines
Turbine Types and Applications
300 Meters
984 Feet
30 Meters
98 Feet
or
5 Meters
16 Feet
Hydro Prime Mover Types:
Kinetic
Source: http://hydropower.navajo.cz/hydropower-2.jpg
Low-Head Propeller
Turbine
Low-Head = less
than 16 feet
Source:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d0/Hydroel
ectricTurbineRunner.png/300px-HydroelectricTurbineRunner.png
Medium Head Francis Runner
Source:
http://www.capture3d.com/Images/Applications/turbines3DmeasureFig9.jpg
High Head Pelton Turbine
Tesla Designed a Total System
Bladeless hydro-frictional turbine
 3-Phase alternator
 Distribution transformers
 Wireless transmission of electric power, to all
points on the earth
 World peace and harmony

Tesla’s Frictional Turbine
Source: http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/tesla-turbine-4.jpg
Creating Water Head:
Impoundment
Source: http://media.thesolarguide.com/i/illust_howworks.gif
Creating Water Head:
Diversion
Source: http://gator787.hostgator.com/~reapmgmt/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/diversionhydro-280x213.jpg
Hydro Plant Sizes



Large Hydropower
 Although definitions vary, DOE defines large
hydropower as a capacity of more than 30 MW.
Small Hydropower
 Although definitions vary, DOE defines small
hydropower as a capacity of 100 KW to 30 MW.
Micro Hydropower
 A micro hydropower plant has a capacity of up to 100
kilowatts. A small or micro-hydroelectric power
system can produce enough electricity for a home,
farm, ranch, or small village.
Micro-Hydro
Micro Hydro
Typically
need at least
3 feet of
head and 20
gpm of flow
Harris Micro-hydro
Source: http://www.firemountainsolar.com/pics/home_harrisCollageSM.jpg
Stream Engine Micro-hydro
Micro-hydro Installation
Head (feet) x Flow (gpm) / 10 = Watts
[For example, 30 gpm x 100 feet/ 10 = 300 watts]
Other Hydro-Related
Prime Movers
Ocean Energy
The tidal forces and thermal storage of the
ocean provide a major energy source
 Wave action adds to the extractable surface
energy
 Major ocean currents (like the Gulf Stream) may
be exploited to extract energy with rotors

Source: http://www.yourgreendream.com/images/articles/wp_wave.jpg
Ocean Energy: Tidal Energy
Tides are produced by gravitational forces of the
moon and sun and the Earth’s rotation
 Existing and possible sites:






France: La Rance river estuary 240 MW station
England: Severn River
Canada: Passamaquoddy in the Bay of Fundy (1935
attempt failed)
California: high potential along the northern coast
Environmental, economic, and esthetic aspects
have delayed implementation
Barage Tidal Power
Tidal-Stream Generators
Source: http://www.metaefficient.com/wp-content/uploads/seagen_marine_current_turbine.jpg
Tidal-Stream Generators
Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/77/SeaGen_installed.jpg/200px-SeaGen_installed.jpg
Tidal-Stream Generators
Ocean Energy: Wave Energy

Salter “ducks” rock up and down as the wave
passes beneath it. This oscillating mechanical
energy is converted to electrical energy

A Wavegen, wave-driven, air compressor or
oscillating water column (OWC) spins a two-way
Wells turbine to produce electricity
Wave Power
Source:
http://www.kitco.com/ind/K
irtley_Sam/images/may17
2007_2.jpg
Source: http://www.rise.org.au/info/Tech/wave/image002.gif
Ocean Energy: OTEC (Ocean Thermal
Electric Conversion)



OTEC requires some 40°F temperature difference
between the surface and deep waters to extract energy
Open-cycle plants vaporize warm water and condense
it using the cold sea water, yielding potable water and
electricity from turbines-driven alternators
Closed-cycle units evaporate ammonia at 78°F to
drive a turbine and an alternator
A Final, Related Prime Mover
Energy from the Earth’s Forces
Winds, waves, tides, and thermal gradients
are renewable energy sources that might be
valuable in some areas.
•http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3ner5tWA4o&feature=related
•http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MT-4ZMgDBNI
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Hydropower - Heartland Community College