S. S. MAITI TRIFED, NEW DELHI OR World population -About 90 genera-About 1400 species India population -About 75 genera -About 140 species GLOBAL BAMBOO SCENARIO VIS-À-VIS INDIA BAMBOO ACREAGE AREA(MILLION HA) % OF FOREST COVER Worldwide Asia *Africa 36 24 2.7 3.2 4.4 - *Latin America 10 - 7% 28% 65% Asia Africa America *Reported by six countries (Ethiopia, Kenya,Nigeria,Uganda,the United Republic of Tanzania and Zimbabwe Area wise distribution in different parts of India Asia 65% Rest 20% India 30% China 15% Others 9% Karnataka 7% India NER 28% Arunanchal Pradesh 20% Orissa 6% Maharashtra 10% Madhya Pradesh 20% ASIA Country India China Indonesia Laos Myanmar Vietnam Malaysia Other Thailand Philippines Total Asia Source : FAO (2005) Area of Bamboo ( 1,000 ha) 11,361 5,444 2,081 1,612 859 813 677 340 261 172 23,620 India accounts for roughly half the total area of bamboo reported for Asia and, together with China, approximately 70 percent. AFRICA Country Nigeria Ethiopia Tanzania Kenya Uganda Total Africa Area of Bamboo (1,000 ha) 1,590 849 128 124 67 2,758 LATIN AMERICA Country Area of Bamboo (1,000 ha) Brazil 9,300 Chile 900 Peru 190 Ecuador 9 Total Latin America 10,399 Source : FAO (2005) Note : Not all countries participated in the study (B) MARKET Estimate of Global Bamboo Market Expected to grow by 2015 Estimate of domestic Bamboo Economy of India (2005) Present estimate of domestic market potential Estimated domestic growth by 2015 Estimate of India’s share in global market Estimated growth in global market by 2015 $ 12 billion i.e. Rs. 54,000 Cr. $ 20 billion i.e. Rs. 90,000 Cr. Rs. 2000 Cr. Rs. 4500 Cr. Rs. 26000 Cr. $ 1 billion i.e. Rs. 4,500 Cr. $ 5.7 billion i.e. 25,650 Cr. But in actual India contributes to only 4% share of the global market despite having largest area(11.4 m.ha) under bamboo in the world and comprising more than 100 species. B (i) Market Share of continents in Bamboo products export North and Central America 0.40% Europe 30% Oceania 0.20% South America Africa 1.20% 5% Asia 63% B (ii) Market share of major countries in bamboo products import Japan 14% Hong Kong 5% Others 7% USA 37% France 7% Germany 7% Netherlands 4% UK 19% B (iii) Consumption pattern of bamboo in India (%) Pulp Housing Non-Residential Rural Usage Packing incluing basket Transport Furniture Others wood working industry 35 20 5 20 5 1.5 1 1 B (iv) The current and expected size of the market for some bamboo products Pruduct/Application Bamboo Shoot Bamboo as wood substitute Bamboo Plyboard Bamboo Plyboard (for trucks & railways) Bamboo Flooring Bamboo pulp Bamboo Furniture Building and Construction Material Scaffolding Housing Roads Bamboo grids for Tiny/cottage sector (e.g Agarbatti) Misc. usage (ice creams, fireworks,pencils, matches etc Current market Market expected (Rs. In Cr.) by 2015 (Rs. In Cr.) 5 300 10,000 (import 30,000 (in 20 value) years) 200 1000 100(Domestic) 100 (Export) 100 380 394 500 3400 1950 2088 3265 861 1163 274 1000 600 B(v) Market size in the USA of various bamboo product categories based on 2004 import figures from the PIERS database. Category Handicrafts Kitchen articles Basketry Decoration Garden Raw material Furniture Furniture with woven parts Cane based furniture With other materials Tables Chairs Crates Shelves Bedroom articles Flooring Flooring as such Accessories Without finishing Finished Parquet Panels Veneer Source: Total adapted from CORPEI, 2005 Value (US$ 1 000) 2415 23796 70645 31221 27000 15654 20081 6452 4778 3289 1794 1613 1352 473 185 70453 64600 2952 1563 544 455 154 104 262265 Market share (%) 0.9 9.1 27.0 11.9 10.3 6.0 7.7 2.5 1.8 1.3 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.2 0.1 27.0 24.7 1.1 0.6 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.0 100.0 B (vi) Consumption of bamboo and wooden flooring in the EU and USA, 1000 m2 Countries Year Bamboo Wood Netherlands Germany 2005 2002 2003 2005 2003 2005 2005 150 n/a 300-350 450-500 670 850-900 4200 n/a 21000 n/a n/a 95000 n/a n/a EU USA Sources: VON REITZENSTEIN, 2004: CORPEI, 2005: MALIN,BOEHLAND,2006: ZAAL,2006 B (vii) Consumption of various industrial bamboo products in the West compared to wood consumption in the EU and USA. Countries/products Netherlands Veneer High quality boards for top layers of flooring High quality boards for furniture and special interior projects Germany Veneer High quality boards for top layers of flooring High quality boards for furniture and special interior projects European Union Veneer High quality boards for top layers of flooring High quality boards for furniture and special interior projects USA Veneer Year Bamboo (m2) 2003 2005 2005 n/a 25000 50000 2005 25000 2003 2005 2005 n/a 30000 200000 2005 75000 2003 2005 2003 n/a 575000 2400000 2003 2400000 2003 US$140000 Bamboo (m3) Wood(m3) 30000 150 436000 1800 1753000 3450 662000 Sources: ITTO, 2004: CORPEI, 2005: ZAAI, 2006 Note: Consumption data for bamboo veneer is available only in m2 . For a better comparison with wood veneer consumption, cubic meter figures were calculated and added to the table based on a standard veneer thickness of 6 millimetres (ZAAI, 2006). C. BAMBOO-VARIOUS USES AND APPLICATION • • • 1500 listed application. 432 million workdays creation per annum. It is estimated that worldwide, about 2.50 billion people trade in or use bamboo of which about 1 billion use it for housing. -Scaffolding, Bridges, Housing material, Pipes (Of the total 13.47 million tonnes, 3.4 is consumed for scaffolding alone) -Pulp, Paper - 35% used for pulp & paper industries. 1.4 million tonnes bamboo is used by 10-15 paper mills presently. -Mat, Basket, Brooms -Matchstick, toothpick, Agarbatti stick (Present Agarbatti stick market is Rs.186 crore) -Furniture, Home furnishing, Desktop & Office Accessories -Flooring (Chinas Annual production was 17.50 million sq. metr in 2004. Exports 65% of total production) -Fabric (textile items) -Soil rehabilitation (protects steep slopes, soils and waterways. Prevents soil erosion, facilitates restoration of a healthy water table) -Reforestation of deserted/degraded land, Environment protection -Carbon sequestration (Isolates carbon faster and thus fights against climate change) -Food (Bamboo shoots having market in N. E. States of India and around the world. Present International market is valued at Rs.7500 crore which is 35% of total commercial market for Bamboo. Domestic market is Rs.4.8 crore. -Fuel (Bamboo charcoal , Bamboo gas, oil) -6 times more capacity than wood charcoal Activated charcoal - Used as water purifier - (In Japan Bamboo charcoal is used in gardening to preserve the moisture available to the plants). -Packaging (In agriculture/horticulture product packaging mainly, followed by any other kind ) -C ream and beverages (Bamboo extract) -Fish trap, Fishing rod, Fish basket, Sift etc. -Handicrafts (250 million mandays, generates income of Rs.15 billion per annum) -Medicinal use • Acetylcholine found in bamboo in high levels acts as neurotransmitter in animals and humans. • Tabashir, a secretion found in culms is used in Ayurvedic and Tibetal medicine for cooling, aphrodisiac properties and also as remedy for asthma, cough etc. • Leaves of a particular species Pleisblastus amarus, grown in Southern China is used for treating fever, fidgeting and lung inflammation. • Stems and leaves of Bamboo used in Ayurveda for purifying blood, leucoderma, bronchitis, gonorrhea etc. • The burnt roots of this species are applied to control Ringworm, bleeding gums and painful joints. • Bamboo bark for eruptions • Disability aids/implements • Leafbud of B. Spinosa – Leprosy, fever and haemoptysis D. Emerging Areas •Rural/Eco/Ethnic haats – Tourism sector -Claymade huts with bamboo structure, doors & windows •Soil conservation -Preventing soil erosion, collapse of river embankment, protecting slopes •Plantation on degraded/deserted land -Providing environment services by causing more rainfall, higher ground water level and reducing felling of timber • Renewable energy sources creation -Augmenting production of bamboo charcoal instead of Wood charcoal and Fossil fuel (Coal). • Carbon trading • Emphasis on Medicinal application, Disability implements etc. • Broadbasing Handicraft Sector including bamboo furniture (knock down)-a list of items are enclosed in Annexure I. • Back-end support system -Creation of Bamboo bank (Inventory of semi-processed bamboo as per their specific uses), pre-fabricated, doors, windows •Livelihood security to Bamboo dependent communities at the grassroot level. • Awareness programme, dissemination of bamboo based information/Interaction with Market players, potential customers etc. about the existing products, their usefulness and long-term advantages. ANNEXURE-I BAMBOO MADE HANDICRAFTS DESKTOP/TABLE ACCESSORIES HOME FURNISHING Fruit Basket, Bread Basket ,Tray , Napkin Holder , Table mat, Coaster , Photo Frame, Pen & Pencil box Paint brush container Book & CD holder etc. Window curtain, Venetian Blinds, Stool ,Table, Chair, Sofa, Cot Lamps/Mirror Frame, Decorative Wall hanging, Laundry Baskets, Storage container , Cutlery & Crokery etc. OFFICE ACCESSORIES CHILDREN TOYS Bin Basket, MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS Paper Tray, Rack, Letter & Card Holder , Cabinet, Office Chair, Table, Partitions, Almirah etc.