Urban Transport
Planning
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Contents
• Approach for transport planning (Traditional v/s
•
•
•
•
•
contemporary planning)
Urban Transport Planning Strategies
Preparing Comprehensive Mobility Plans
Role of Policies in Urban Transport Planning
Concepts of Alternative Analysis
Establish Service Level Benchmarks for cities
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Urban Transport Planning
• Transport planning is an exercise of evolving policies
and strategies that give a rational direction to
activities towards fulfilling a set of goals and
objectives in Transport.
• Transportation planning is an integral part of overall
urban planning and requires a systematic approach.
3
Urban Transport Challenges
• Growing Economy:
• Road Safety:
Increased Car Ownership
Increased Traffic Volumes
Increased congestion
• Energy Consumption
• Urban Sprawl:
•
Increased speed
Increased conflicts among modes
Increased accidents and fatalities
More car dependency
Increased trip lengths
High costs for extending
infrastructure and services
Climate Change:
Transport consumes 30% of total
energy
Increased demand for fossil fuel
Increased GHG emissions
Global warming
Higher emission levels
Air and noise pollution
To address the dynamic complexities of urban systems, a multidisciplinary Planning Process is needed
4
Urban Transport Planning Approaches
Traditional Approach
Sustainable Approach
Known as
Automobile Approach
Contemporary Approach
5
Traditional Approach
Development of
townships far from the
city center
Homogenous form.
Predominantly residential.
No mixed use
Connected to the city
center by broad roads,
encourages automobile
use
Ad-hoc development; no
public transport, NMT
networks planned
Source: Embarq
Massive roads, with costly
infrastructure such as grade
separation Requires huge tracts of land
needed
Dwarka, New Delhi – Source:
http://im.videosearch.rediff.com/thumb
Image/videoImages/videoImages1/yout
ube/rdhash774/KHGQIStNc9o.gif
10% - 15% of urban areas
are taken up by ROAD
infrastructure – a lot of
space for cars
Unidirectional traffic
congestion: towards city
center in the morning and
towards the suburbs in the
evening
6
Sustainable Approach
Sustainable transport refers to any
means of transport with low
impact on the environment, and
includes walking and cycling, as as
well as technology to move
people, goods, and information in
ways that reduce its impact on the
environment, the economy, and
society
Efficient, Equitable, and Environmentally friendly transport !
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Sustainable Urban Transport Planning - GOALS
• Access: The City should be designed for people, not cars. It should be
at least as convenient to live in a city without a personal motor
vehicle as with one
• Equity: Highest priority should go to public transport, walking, and
non-motorized vehicles
• Environment: Prevention of air and noise pollution
• Economy: Users of cars and motorcycles should be charged for the full
economic, environmental, and social costs of their transportation.
• Integrated
framework.
Planning approach within a comprehensive policy
• Public participation and transparency: It is important that the public be
consulted in planning process
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Sustainable Approach
SUTP – Strategies
• Avoid:
Avoiding or reducing
trips
• Shift:
Shifting
to
more
environmentally friendly modes
• Improve: Improving vehicle and
fuel technology of all modes of
transport
to
improve
environmental efficiency from
each
kilometer
travelled
AVOID
Reducing the need to travel
SHIFT
Changing mode choice
IMPROVE
Increasing the energy efficiency of vehicles,
fuels, and transport operations
Source: GIZ
9
Sustainable Approach
Avoid Strategies:
• Integrated Land use and Transport
• Mixed Use Development – Transit Oriented
Development
• Information
and
Communication
Technology
Shift Strategies:
• Non-Motorized Transport
• Public Transport
• Transportation Demand Management
Cycling, Bangalore to Mysore
http://www.thehindu.com/news/state
s/karnataka/article419583.ece
Improve Strategies:
• Cleaner Fuels and Technologies
• Inspection and Maintenance
• Intelligent Transportation System
Public transport, Bangalore India
http://www.silcharchronicle.com/2012/06/bm
tc-roll-out-volvo-longer-buses-6154.php/bmtcvolvo-buses
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SUTP Summary
Avoiding low-density sprawl
Encouraging Mixed Land Use
Transit oriented development
Good urban design
Not too much land for roads and parking
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Source: EMBARQ
… now let us understand the importance of
Urban Transport Policy
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What is a Policy ?
•
A policy is a guiding principle used to set direction
•
It can be a course of action to guide and influence decisions
•
It should be used as a guide to decision making under a given set of
circumstances within the framework of objectives, goals and strategies to
be adopted
Features common to all good policies
•
State matters of principle
•
Focused on action, stating what is to be done and by whom
•
An authoritative statement, made by a person or body with power to do so
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Policy Options
• Supply – Network, Public Transport, NMT, Parking,
Environment
• Demand – Congestion pricing, Parking pricing
• Implementation – Institutional, Financing
• Operation – Fare Fixation, Licensing
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National Urban Transport Policy
Vision
• To recognize that people occupy center-stage in our cities and all plans
would be for their common benefit and well being
• To make our cities the most livable in the world and enable them to become
the “engines of economic growth” that power India’s development in the
21st century
• To allow our cities to evolve into an urban form that is best suited for the
unique geography of their locations and is best placed to support the main
social and economic activities that take place in the city.
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Setting Policies
1.
Definition -What problem is the plan intended to solve?
2.
Projection -How will the situation develop if the problem continues?
3.
Constraints -What are the limits of finance, time, etc. within which
planning must take place?
4.
Option -What are the alternatives and their pros and cons?
5.
Formulation -What are the main alternative plans, i.e. packages of
available option within the prevailing constraints?
6.
Testing -How would each of the alternative plans work out in practice?
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7.
Evaluation -Which plan gives the greatest value (within the constraints) in
terms of solving the problems already defined
… now let us identify some GAPS in the existing
planning process, before we understand how the
process ideally should happen…..
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Gaps in Planning Process
Lack of vision
and holistic
approach
Weak
Coordination
between
Landuse and
Transport
Lack of public
participation
and
engagement
Gaps
Data
Challenges –
Standards,
Collection,
Repository
Institutional
Challenges
Inadequate
Planning
Capacity
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… now let us understand the process of
Urban Transport Planning
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Transport Planning Process
An urban transport planning is a cycle - logical sequence of
tasks starting from ..
• Vision /Goals / Objectives
• Strategies
• Proposals
• Alternate Analysis
• Institutional Framework
• Finance
Vision
Financing
Institution
Alternatives
Goals &
Objectives
Strategies
Proposals
/Projects
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Transport Planning Process
Vision
• The
vision statement is a guiding principle to develop
strategies
• Adheres to the needs of the population
• Transport vision of the city should encompass all elements
of a sustainable transport system
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Transport Planning Process
Goals and Objectives
The goals and objectives of the planning process provide more
granularity to the vision statement
They provide the concepts of
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•
•
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Equity
Safety
Integrated planning
Use of public transport
Promotion of non-motorized modes
Accessibility
Travel demand reduction
Reliability
Clean energy usage
Use of technology
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Transport Planning Process
Transport Strategies
1.
Integrated Land use and transport strategy
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TOD
National Urban Habitat Mission
2.
Network Development Strategy
3.
Mobility Corridor Strategy
4.
Public Transport Strategy
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5.
Bus augmentation
Higher order MRTs
Intermodal Integration
Land Use &
Transport Strategy
Travel Demand
Management
Strategy
Planning
Strategies
Non- Motorized Transport Strategy


Cycles/cyclists
Pedestrians
6.
Freight Management Strategy
7.
Parking Strategy
8.
IPT Strategy
9.
Traffic Management
10. Travel Demand Management Strategy
Network
Development &
Mobility Corridors
Traffic
Engineering
Measures
Public Transit
Improvement
Strategy
Freight
Management
Strategy
Non-Motorized
Transport Strategy
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Transport Strategies
1. Integrated Land Use & Transport Strategy
•
•
Transport network is dependent on land use.
Integrated land use and transport should promote balanced regional
growth
This strategy should focus on
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Accessibility
Connectivity
Transit oriented development
Structural form of urban growth
Mixed land use developments to minimize vehicle trips
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Transport Strategies
Integrated Land Use & Transport Strategy
What is Transit Oriented Development ?
A Transit Oriented Development (TOD) is a mixed-use residential or commercial area
designed to maximize access to public transport and incorporates features to encourage
transit ridership
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Design for a livable, sustainable future !`````
Transport Strategies
2. Network Development Strategy (Mobility Corridors)
Identify principle corridors where the emphasis will be on moving people
i.e. focusing on mass transit corridors with NMT facilities
By identifying certain primary
corridors as ‘Mobility Corridors’,
these
priority
transport
for
throughput
corridors
increasing
by
transit system(s).
having
get
the
public
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Transport Strategies
3. Non-Motorized Transport Strategy
NMT strategies are an integral part of public transport strategies
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Establish connected walking networks
Adequate walkway and path surfaces
Create bike lanes and bicycle boulevards
Correct roadway hazards to NMT
Use street furniture and pedestrian friendly design features
Integrate cycling with transit.
Provide bicycle parking/rickshaw stands and encourage sharing
Address security concerns of pedestrians and cyclists.
Develop /encourage bike rentals/sharing
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Transport Strategies
4. Freight Management Strategy
Unregulated loading and unloading of freight traffic add congestion on the
roadways.
•
•
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Restricted delivery times
Use of small and medium size vehicles with modern emission controls
Develop Freight Terminals/warehouses
Relocation of wholesale markets to the periphery
Construction of bypasses
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Transport Strategies
5. Parking Management Strategy
•
Development of a parking strategy is necessary in order to shape
the framework for the future provision, management and
maintenance of parking facilities
•
Development of Parking Strategy is based on an understanding of
the parking supply and demand position in City
Parking strategies to be considered for any city include
•
•
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Restriction of on - street parking
Parking Pricing
Off Street parking facilities
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Transport Strategies
6. Traffic Engineering Measures
Road Markings
Traffic
Separator/
Channelizer
Signages
Traffic Calming
Techniques
Footpath Repair
Signalization of
Works
Intersections
Road
Resurfacing/
Rectification -
Strengthening of
Patch Repair
Road Stretch
Intersection
Improvements
Delineators
One Way Streets
Speed Limits
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Refer to Traffic Engineering and Management Module for details on traffic engineering measures
Transport Strategies
7. Demand Management Strategies
•
To increase public transport modal shares,
additional
demand
management
interventions need to be implemented
•
Congestion Pricing - mobility management
strategy to reduce traffic congestion.
•
Congestion Pricing
Demand Management through restricted
parking supply or imposing restriction of
vehicles
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Refer to Traffic Engineering and Management Module for details
on travel demand management measures
Parking Control
Transport Planning Process
Proposals / Projects
A clear implementation strategy for the Plan needs to be in place
along with clear phasing of schemes and initiatives.
Projects may be classified as
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Long Term Proposals
Medium Term Proposals
Short Term Proposals
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Projects
Long Term Proposals
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Mass Transit Systems
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Metro / LRT / Mono Rail
Suburban Rail
BRT
Intermodal Stations
Truck Terminals & Intercity Bus Terminals
Elevated Roads
Freight Corridors
Missing Roadway Links
Long term proposals have to undergo Alternate Analysis process
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Projects
Medium term Term Proposals
The medium term proposals are those whose effectiveness last up
to 10 years
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Off-street Parking Facilities
Flyovers
Pedestrian Subways
ROBs / RUBs
Intelligent Transport Systems
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Projects
Short term Term Proposals
The short-term proposals include those schemes whose usefulness
might last up to a maximum of 5 years
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Pedestrian Infrastructure
Bicycle Network and Infrastructure
Pedestrian Zones
Demand Management Strategies
Parking Management
Junction Improvements
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Transport Planning Process
Alternative Analysis
•
Alternatives
analyses,
explores
the
different
alternatives
•
It aids the decision maker, in identifying tangible and
intangible costs and benefits.
•
Well-organized management of overall evaluation
results are important in planning outputs
•
An important aspect of this process is public
engagement and participation.
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Alternative Analysis
Definition - AA
• AA is about finding best alternative to solve transport and
related problems in a corridor or sub area
• Is not a feasibility study
• Identifies the best solution from various options
1. Alternative Analysis follows comprehensive planning
2. Alternate Analysis is done for a corridor or a sub – area
3. Planning horizon for AA is usually 15 years
4. AA evaluates a number of feasible solutions
corridor/sub area and identifies the best solution
for the
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Alternative Analysis
How is AA done?
Process consists of 10 steps
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Set Goals and Objectives
Set up Steering Committee
Review Technical issues, Data, Models
Define Scope of Services
Framing the Analysis
Identification of Alternatives (Conceptual)
Final Definition of Alternatives
Public Review Process
Evaluation
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Selection of Preferred Alternative
Alternative Analysis - Toolkits and Guidelines; MoUD
Transport Planning Process
Institution and Capacity Building
•
Focus on establishing a central nodal authority (UMTA)
responsible for all transport initiatives and planning for million
plus cities
•
A capacity building program needs to be in place to enhance the
subject knowledge of the personnel involved in planning
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… now let us understand
Comprehensive Mobility Plan (CMP)
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Comprehensive Mobility Plan
(CMP)
• Long term vision of desirable mobility patterns for a city
• Provides
strategy and policy measures to achieve the
vision
• Follows
NUTP, which emphasizes NMT measures, PT
systems and sustainable systems
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Role of a CMP
City
Development Plan
Existing Comprehensive
Traffic & Transport Study
Master Plan
Comprehensive Mobility Plan
Approval of CMP from MoUD
Alternative Analysis
DPR level 1 (Feasibility Study)
Appraisal for Funding (JNNURM)
DPR level 2 (Detailed Design)
Implementation
Source: CMP Preparation Toolkit
- Guidelines and Toolkits for
Urban Transport Development
in Medium Sized Cities in India –
MoUD/ADB
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What does a CMP do?
• Provides
vision for future transport in accordance with the
NUTP
• Defines corridors of movements
• Focuses on moving people
• Identifies projects that achieve the vision
• Establishes Service Level Benchmarks
• Identifies phasing and block costs of the project
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What does a CMP NOT do?
• Define the final system configuration of a corridor
• Conduct feasibility analysis of projects
• Detail cost estimates
• Locate Stations and size them
• Detail traffic engineering plans, including one-ways, etc.
• Include Alternate Analysis
• Include DPR
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Comparison of CMP with other Studies
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Steps involved in conducting a CMP
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Evaluate existing scenario
- Collect Data and List problems
•
Forecast future transport scenario
- Develop Transport Demand Model
•
Set up Vision and Goals
•
Formulate strategies for development
•
Develop Mobility Plan
- Set up measurable Bench Marks / Targets
-Evaluate strategies
- Long term schemes
-Medium term schemes
-Short term schemes
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Prepare Implementation Plan
- Block costs
- Phasing
•
Establish Service Level Benchmarks
•
Recommend an Institutional frame work
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SLB a tool used by public entities to make
more informed decisions regarding the
performance
Service Level Benchmarks
10. Financial
Sustainability
of PT by Bus
1. Public
Transport
facilities
•
Make comparisons internally and with other
organizations/entities
•
Improve performance using the lessons
learned through this comparison process.
•
In all the CMP Studies, SLB is made
Mandatory by the Ministry
2. Pedestrian
Infrastructure
facilities
3. NMT
facilities
9. Integrated
Land Use
Transport
System
4. Level of Usage
of ITS facilities
8. Pollution
levels
5. Travel speed
along major
corridors
7. Road
Safety
6. Availability of
Parking Spaces
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SLB Indicators - 1
Service Level Benchmark
Indicators to be identified
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Presence of Organized Public Transport System in Urban Area
Extent of Supply / Availability of Public Transport
Service Coverage of Public Transport in the city (Bus route
network density)
Average waiting time for Public Transport users
Level of Comfort in Public Transport (Crowding)
Percentage Fleet as per Urban Bus Specifications
Pedestrian Infrastructure
facilities
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Signalized intersection delay (%)
Street Lighting (Lux)
Percentage of City Covered with footpaths (wider than 1.2 mtrs)
Non-Motorized Transport
(NMT) facilities
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NMT Coverage (% network covered)
Encroachment on NMT roads by Vehicle parking (%)
NMT parking facilities at Interchanges (%)
Level of Usage of Intelligent
Transport System (ITS)
facilities
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Availability of Traffic Surveillance System
Passenger Information System (PIS)
Usage of Global Positioning System
Signal Synchronization
Integrated Ticketing System
Signalized intersection
Public Transport facilities
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SLB Indicators - 2
Service level Benchmark
Indicators to be identified
Travel speed (motorized and
mass transit) along major
corridors
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Average Travel speed of Personal vehicles (Kmph)
Average Travel speed of Public Transport (Kmph)
Availability of Parking spaces
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Availability of paid public parking spaces (%)
Difference in Maximum and Minimum Parking Fee in the City
Road Safety
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Fatality rate per lakh population
Fatality rate for pedestrian and NMT (%)
Pollution levels

Annual Mean Concentration Range (µg/m3)

Population Density - Gross (Persons / Developed Area in
hectare)
Mixed Land use on Major Transit Corridors/Network (% non
residential area)
Intensity of Development city wide - (Floor Space Index Master Plan/DP)
Intensity of development along transit corridor
Clear pattern and Complete network
Area under roads (%)
Proportion of network having exclusive ROW for Transit
Extent of Non-fare Revenue (%)
Staff /bus ratio
Operating Ratio

Integrated Land Use Transport
System
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Financial Sustainability of Public

Transport by bus

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A Case Study on CMP…..
Comprehensive Mobility Plan for Tirupati
Source: UMTC Study, 2012
50
Primary Data Collection
Sl. No.
Name of the Survey
Quantity
1
Road Network Inventory
2
Screen line Volume Count Survey
15
3
Turning Volume count survey
10
4
Bus stop Boarding and alighting survey
5
Passenger in and out count / OD survey Railway station
Major roads
24 Bus stops
5 stations
6
Pedestrian Counts – mid blocks
10 locations
7
Pedestrian Counts – junctions
10 Locations
8
Outer Cordon Traffic Counts
9
Speed and Delay Survey
10
O – D Survey ( Including Goods Vehicles)
9
11
Bus Occupancy Survey
15
12
Household Interview Survey
13
IPT Operator survey
10 samples
14
NMT Opinion survey
50 samples
15
Parking duration survey ( On street )
8
16
Parking Duration survey ( Off street)
5
17
Truck Operator survey
9
Major corridors
2500 samples
10 samples
51
Model Development
Number of Internal zones-130
Number of External zones – 7
Total zones - 137
Number of Nodes – 752
Number of links – 1077
Total Road length – 1177 Km
Number of city Bus Routes – 14
Number of Share auto routes - 5
52
Population Projection
2011
1,041,557
2021
1,275,695
2031
1,516,421
Targets – Bench Marks
Index
Average Speed
Network
Formulation
of
Average Running Speed for all vehicles
Existing
Target
17
30
Walkabilty
(Footpath Length in Km /Road length in Km)x100
22%
100%
Cyclability
(Cycle track Length in Km/Road length in Km)x100
0%
50%
Fatality (2010)
No of fatalities/lakh population
7
0
IPT Index
No of registered IPT vehicles / lakh population
760
500
Modal Share of PT
Motorized
Public Transport Trips/Total Study Area Trips
27%
50%
Modal Share of NMT
NMT Trips/Total Trips
32%
50%
16%
40
Accessibility
(Work trips with Travel Time less than 15 min/ Total Trips)
53
NMT Proposals
Elevated walk way from APSRTC Bus stand to Railway station
From Railway station to Govindaraja Swamy Temple
Walk ways on - Tiruchanur Road / Alipiri bypass Road /
Chandragiri Road / Kapila Theertham Road
54
•Cycle tracks with effective width of 2m on all major roads
•Foot paths on major roads
PT Proposals
Hop On – Hop Off Bus service connecting all Temples
Commuter Rail – Guntur and Chittoor
55
•Mono Rail connecting Tirumala and Tirupati
•BRT – Chandra Giri & Srikalahasthi
Way Forward
throughput of people and not vehicles
• Adopts clean fuel technology in reducing air pollution
56
• An integrated holistic approach to transport planning is required that
• Reduces the number of vehicles on the road
• Enhances public transport system
• Ensures effective traffic management measures to maximize
• Need for a Comprehensive Urban Transport Act to address all the
current issues, priorities and all modes
• The Act must be consistent and aligned to NUTP principles
• Need for a standardized Data Management Center
• Institutional reforms and Capacity Building initiatives are needed
• Identify certain new policies and bring in Policy Reforms in
Transportation
56
Thank You!
57
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