Economy and
Olga Ponizova,
Eco-Accord, Russia
[email protected]
 To
share thoughts on green economy
and its importance for BRICS;
 To share thoughts on climate change
process and BRICS;
 To
suggests ways of cooperation among
BRICS countries on Green Economy, in
particular on Climate Change and LowCarbon Economy.
Brazil, Russia, India, China and
South Africa = BRICS
Rapid economic development
Geographical and demographic importance
Old civilisations
Necessity for development and poverty
Rich natures
BRICS and global stability:
Россия 9,60%
Китай 4,93%
Sourse; Bobylev, MSU
США 5,22%
Канада 5,25%
Green Economy:
No officially agreed definition;
Green economy as one that results in
improved human well-being and social
equity, while significantly reducing
environmental risks and ecological
scarcities. In its simplest expression.
* low-carbon energy (especially renewable energy and
resource of energy efficient technologies);
• sustainable water supply systems, water and sanitation,
and waste management;
• sustainable production of food (organic, biodynamic
farming and sustainable practices for livestock)
• the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity;
• sustainable transport system, with an emphasis on public
transport, planting the automotive industry;
• sustainable tourism;
• green jobs, sustainable lifestyles and livelihoods that
provide social justice and equality and establish concrete
measures in order to progress and prosperity;
• Reforming International Environmental Governance:
global policy and economic nstitutions
- Appropriate pricing , including phase-out of inefficient
subsidy, assessment of natural resources in monetary terms
and the introduction of taxes that harm the environment;
- Public procurement policies that encourage the
production of environmentally friendly products and use of
the principles of sustainable production methods;
- Reforming the system of "environmental" tax, involving a
shift from taxes on labor to taxes on pollution;
- Increase public investment s in infrastructure, based on SD
principles (including public transport, renewable energy,
energy-efficient buildings) and natural capital to restore,
maintain and, where possible, increase the volume of
natural capital;
- Targeted government support for research and
development related to the creation of environmentally
sound technologies;
- Social policies to ensure consistency between the goals in
the social field and the existing or proposed economic
International Context:
• February, 2009. - 25th Session of the UNEP Governing
Council / Global Ministerial Environment Forum - green
economy report.
• April, 2009. -UN Communique on nine joint initiatives
to tackle the crisis, one of which was the initiative of
the green economy.
• June, 2009. – Green Growth Declaration (OECD).
• June, 2009. - More than 20 UN Agencies mentioned
green economy at the UN Conference on Global
Economic and Financial Crisis and Development
• September, 2009. - UNEP report to G20 in Pittsburg
• December, 2009. UN GA decision on Rio +20
* 2010 – G20 in Toronto
• 2010 - ESCAP meeting
• 2011 - UN ECE meeting
* 2012 – Rio+20
BRICS Leaders Meeting Declaration
Sanya, China, 14 April 2011
III. New proposals to explore
3. Explore the feasibility to cooperate in
the field of green economy.
Green Economy Benefits, UNEP:
stimulate economic progress
new jobs
at the same time reducing the risks of global
threats such as climate change, loss of
ecosystem services and water scarcity.
In the short term "green economy" is able to
provide GDP growth, increasing per capita
income and employment in the same or even
higher rates than the traditional "brown"
In the medium to long term "green economy"
will overtake "brown" and also give much
greater benefits for the environment and
reduce social inequality.
Green Economy: financing
 For
the 2012-2050 years. only 2% of global
GDP should be invested in ten key sectors:
agriculture, housing and utilities, energy,
fisheries, forestry, industry, tourism,
transport, disposal and recycling of waste
and water management.
 Wise financial policy
Green Economy risks/concerns
 Green
protectionism (wind power,
aviation, carbon taxes);
 Lack of Social Inclusiveness (e.g. no new
jobs or “dirty” jobs;
 The concept will be used as pure
 The same approach for different countries,
without specific situation.
Good practice:
Energy in China
Sustainable urban planning in
Rural ecological infrastructure in
Green Economy: Obstacles
 Lack
of awareness on the GE concept;
 Lack of proper understanding of
 Lack of capacity to implement the
concept in full;
 Difficulties to
 International economic rules don’t often
promote GE concept (WTO)
Possibilities of cooperation:
Common actions again green-protectionism;
Common position at the international fora
(WTO etc.);
Research on cost and benefit of GE for BRICS
and “feasibility to cooperate in the field of
green economy” – new BRICS TERN initiative?
Exchange of experience, among different
stakeholders - governments, civil society
groups, farmers, business(BRICS Green
Economy Forum?)
Technological cooperation.
Share of Countries in CO2
Under UNFCC:
Only Russia is included in Annex 1.
China - will endeavor to lower its carbon dioxide emissions
per unit of GDP by 40-45% by 2020 compared to the 2005
level, increase the share of non-fossil fuels in primary
energy consumption to around 15% by 2020 and increase
forest coverage by 40 million hectares and forest stock
volume by 1.3 billion cubic meters by 2020 from the 2005
South Africa – 34% below BAU 2020; conditional 42% BAU
by 2020
India - will endeavour to reduce the emissions intensity of its
GOP by 20-25% by 2020 in comparison to the 2005 level.
Brazil -36.1-38.9% of projected emissions by 2020
Russia - 15-25 %/1990/2020, the range of the GHG
emission reductions will depend on the following conditions:
- Appropriate accounting of the potential of Russia’s forestry
in frame of contribution in meeting the obligations of the
anthropogenic emissions reduction;
- Undertaking by all major emitters the legally binding
obligations to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions.
Some developments in India and Brazil:
Brazil has established a stock exchange for voluntary carbon
 units which may precede a domestic trading scheme;
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil’s second richest state, recently
announced to launch an ETS for its largest emitters
2013 and 2015.
India has not shown much propensity for a domestic
ETS due both to political and institutional reasons;
However, trading schemes for energy efficiency and
renewable energy are already in place.
Some development in China:
China has made concrete steps towards the
creation of regional ETS in various cities and
provinces. Newer announcements even envisage
the creation of a national system by 2015.
However, these plans are still at early stages, and
differ widely in their institutional designs. For
- Guangdong is likely to put in place a trading system
based on absolute emission caps,
- Tianjin and Beijing have indicated that their trading
schemes might be based on energy saving credits.
However, the implementation pathway is as yet
unclear. The question is in particular how the very
diverse design choices of the envisaged pilot
schemes are to be aligned to form a convergent
system on such short notice.
Possible cooperation on carbon market-based–
mechanisms development
-exchange of experience;
- joint research and analytical work;
- capacity building;
- seminars and conferences.
The project could contribute to the new global CC
agreement and reduce risks for “carbon protectionism”
from EU and other countries with ETS.
BRICS Leaders Meeting Declaration
Sanya, China, 14 April 2011
22. We support the Cancun Agreements and are ready to make
concerted efforts with the rest of the international community to
bring a successful conclusion to the negotiations at the Durban
Conference applying the mandate of the Bali Roadmap and in
line with the principle of equity and common but differentiated
responsibilities. We commit ourselves to work towards a
comprehensive, balanced and binding outcome to strengthen
the implementation of the UNFCC and its Kyoto Protocol. The
BRICS will intensify cooperation on the Durban conference. We
will enhance our practical cooperation in adapting our economy
and society to climate change.
8. We support the development and use of renewable energy
resources. ..We are convinced of the importance of cooperation
and information exchange in the field of development of
renewable energy resources.
Possible BRICS cooperation:
Common position on climate change
negotiations reflecting reality and SD
Research, e.g.economic scnario of emissions
Exchange of experience of different
Technology cooperation;
Concrete projects (carbon market-based–
mechanisms development)