TRANSBOUNDARY WATER
RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
IN THE MEKONG BASIN
A STORY IN THREE PARTS
JRP Training – 7 June 2012
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
Over 9 billion people will inhabit this
planet by 2050
More than 700 million people in 43
countries live below the water stress
threshold of 1,700 m3/person/year.
By 2025 that figure will reach 3 billion
people…..
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
What is a ‘Water
footprint’?
WWW.WATERFOOTPRINT.ORG
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
Source:
http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/freshwater/
embedded-water/
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
Water footprint = 552 m3/cap/yr
Energy Use = 11 GJ/cap/yr
Carbon footprint = >0.1 TC/cap/yr
From Peter Menzel – “Hungry Planet”
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
Water footprint = 1072 m3/cap/yr
Energy Use = 12 GJ/cap/yr
Carbon footprint = 0.3 TC/cap/yr
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
Water footprint = 1402 m3/cap/yr
Energy Use = 99 GJ/cap/yr
Carbon footprint = 8 TC/cap/yr
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
Water footprint = 2842 m3/cap/yr
Energy Use = 327 GJ/cap/yr
Carbon footprint = 18 TC/cap/yr
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
THERMAL (COAL FIRED)
NATURAL GAS
WIND ENERGY
HYDROPOWER
Source:
http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/freshwater/
embedded-water/
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
High oil prices push countries to divert grain
and sugar production into biofuels.
This increases food prices and can drive
social instability and food shortages.
This has global reach, and many countries are
opting for food security policies – hence
increased irrigation.
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
New pollutants which have impacts at very
low concentrations like endocrine
disruptors POPs and pharmaceuticals are
affecting ecosystems and humans.
Increased use of soaps and detergents,
and modern household appliances increase
pollutant loads.
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
In South Africa…
Primary treatment
costs are U$ 60 m/a
Secondary treatment
plus u$ 6 m/a
Tertiary treatment
plus U$ 115 m/a
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT – GLOBAL HECTARES
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
It is not the number of people on the globe
that is the problem, but the number of
middle-class people.
A water, food and energy nexus will drive
water management in the future.
Water is likely to become much more of a
globally strategic issue.
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
ENVIRONMENTAL
ECONOMIC
SOCIAL
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
A
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Time
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
A
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For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
A
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For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
World Commission on Dams – on balance the
impacts on ecosystems and people are more
negative than positive.
World Bank Water Sector Strategy – ‘Return to
high risk – high value infrastructure’.
IWMI, DFID, UN-WWAP, WB – All report
positive links between irrigation infrastructure
and poverty reduction.
Infrastructure can help address the
governance challenge (Gavin Quibell).
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
PRODUCTION
DELIVERY
TRANSPORT
USE
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
SCENARIO 1
SCENARIO 2
DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITY SPACE
DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITY SPACE
SCENARIO 3
SCENARIO 4
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
“Sustainable Development” is primarily a sociopolitical construct based on the level of risk
countries are willing to take with development.
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
Consistently applying IWRM principles set
against agreed sustainable development
targets can help us address the challenges.
Prosperity without growth impacts & the
‘green economy’ offer new solutions.
Carefully transitioning countries from
resource-based developing to diversified
services-based economies is critical.
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
The Governments of Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand and
Viet Nam signed the;
“Agreement on the Cooperation for the Sustainable
Development of the Mekong River Basin” (the 1995
Mekong Agreement)
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Vision: An economically prosperous,
socially just and environmentally
sound Mekong River Basin.
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
The Countries agreed to (inter alia);
Cooperate on all fields of sustainable development;
A Basin Development Plan;
Protect the ecological balance;
The reasonable and equitable use of water;
Notification and Prior Consultation processes;
The maintenance of flows on the mainstream;
Prevent, cease and take responsibility for harmful
effects; and
Notify one another of emergency situations.
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
1) Best practice guidelines for hydropower
development, navigation, flood management
and mitigation, irrigation development etc.
2) The 1995 Mekong Agreement – which
establishes the MRC.
3) The Procedures.
4) The Basin Development Plan / Strategy
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
Procedures on Data, Information Exchange
and Sharing (PDIES) - 2001
Procedures on Water Use Monitoring (PWUM)
- 2003
Procedures for Notification, Prior
Consultation and Agreement (PNPCA) - 2003
Procedures for the Maintenance of Flows on
the Mainstream (PMFM) - 2006
Procedures for Water Quality (PWQ) - 2011
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
MEKONG
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
= Surplus water or Development
Opportunity Space
Actual flow
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apl
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
Jan
25,000 A
ha
Feb
Mar
Apl
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Trib. 2
Dec
75,000 ha
Trib. 1
PNPCA
PDIES
PWQ
PWUM
B
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apl
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
There are three ‘sources’ of surplus water
Surplus created by the natural variability in flows;
Surplus created by storage / hydropower within the
LMB; and
Surplus created by the operation of the
hydropower in China.
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
Implementing the Procedures together in this way
will;
Streamline the PNPCA;
Focus the PWUM and PMFM on giving effect to
reasonable and equitable use;
Prioritize implementation of the Procedures,
and the Toolbox; and
Provide mechanisms for negotiating bilateral or
multilateral arrangements around ‘surplus’
water.
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
Integrating the Procedures makes them
much more than transboundary safeguards,
but makes them IWRM-based tools to
support transboundary cooperation and
management.
For Sustainable Development • Mekong IWRM Project
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Transboundary Water Resources Management in the