CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM BY: Erica Wooten What is the Cardiovascular System? The cardiovascular system is responsible for transporting blood throughout the body. It is one of the major body systems that makes sure that the muscles and bones are supplied with the proper amount of oxygen and blood. www.123rf.com MAIN COMPONENTS CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM HEART BLOOD VESSELS www.topnews.in BLOOD brucemhood.wordpress.co THE HEART With each heartbeat, blood is sent throughout our bodies, carrying oxygen and nutrients to every cell. The heart is the key organ in the circulatory system. As a hollow, muscular pump, its main function is to propel blood throughout the body. Its also different kind of muscle than those that move the skeleton. It has four chambers, the two atria and the two ventricles. It is really like two pumps in one www.nhlbi.nih.gov http://kidshealth.org/parent/interactive/he _it.html BLOOD VESSELS There are three types of vessels - arteries, veins, and capillaries. The blood vessels are responsible in transporting blood throughout the body which contains the oxygen. This allows the boy to stay alive. BLOOD Blood is consisting of liquid plasma and cells. It carries oxygen oxygen to other parts of the body. The average human body contains about 4 to 5 liters of blood. As a liquid connective tissue, it transports many substances through the body and helps to maintain homeostasis of nutrients, wastes, and gases Homeostasis First, homeostasis is the deposition of living to keep on functioning at an optimum level, despite changes in the enviorment within certain limits. Or in other words, the process by which the body attempts to maintain a state of stable physiological balance. The body needs to maintain homeostasis in order to stay alive. It maintains homeostasis by carrying nutrients to your cells and removing their wastes. It also helps by carrying hormones throughout the body. Without the cardiovascular system, none of the other systems in the body can function. Cellular Respiration How do the cardiovascular and respiratory systems work together? The heart is where circulation and cooperation between the respiratory and the cardiovascular systems begin. The heart has two ventricles and two atria. The right ventricle and atrium are where blood is received from the veins. Deoxygenated blood flows into the right atrium of the heart. When the heart muscle relaxes, the blood is released from the atrium and into the right ventricle. The right ventricle then pushes the blood through the pulmonary valve and into the pulmonary artery, where the blood is delivered to the lungs for retrieval of oxygen. The blood is then returned to the left side of the heart. As on the right side, the left atrium receives the blood and sends it to the ventricle when the heart muscle relaxes. Finally, the blood is pushed to the aorta and delivered to the rest of the body. THERMOREGULATION Thermoregulation is a homeostatic function that enables you to maintain this core temperature independent of how hot or cold your surroundings are. The main organ involved is the skin, which is controlled by the autonomic nervous system. When your surroundings heat up, the brain triggers a series of chemicals which tell your blood vessels to dilate (widen), which brings in the cardiovascular system. RELATIONS WITH OTHER SYSTEMS Integumentary Skeletal Muscular Nervous Endocrine Lymphatic Respiratory Digestive Urinary Reproductive skin cell stimulation produces local changes in blood flow delivers immune system cells to injury; clot breaks in skin; removes toxins; provides heat provides calcium needed for normal heart muscle contraction; protects blood cells developing in bone marrow provides calcium and phosphorous for bon maintenance; delivers hormones and nutrit cells delivers oxygen and nutrients, removes cab skeletal muscle contractions help move blood through lactic acid, and heat during muscle activity veins; protects superficial blood vessels; muscles make up most of the heart organ controls patterns of circulation; modifies heart rate and regulates blood pressure certain cells in blood vessels maintain bloo barrier; helps to make cerebrospinal fluid helps regulate production of red blood cells; envolved in elevating blood pressure; adrenaline stimulates distributes hormones throughout the body cardiac muscle, elevating heart rate and contraction secretes hormone ANP force defends against pathogens or toxins in blood; fights distributes white blood cells; carries antibo infections of cardiovascular organs; returns tissue fluid clotting response aids in slowing spread of to circulation causing germs provides oxygen and removes carbon dioxide transports oxygen and carbon dioxide betw and other body tissues distributes digestive tract hormones; carrie provides nutrients; absorbs water and ions essential to water, and ions away from sites of absorpt maintenance of normal blood volume delivers nutrients and toxins to liver releases hormones to elevate blood pressure and accelerate red blood cell production; removes waste products delivers blood to capillaries where filtration accepts fluids and solutes reabsorbed durin producton estrogens may maintain healthy vessels and slow development of hardening of the arteries with age distributes reproductive hormones; provide nutrients, oxygen, and waste removal for developing fetus How does it work with rest of the body • Transportation: The cardiovascular system transports blood to almost all of the body’s tissues The blood delivers essential nutrients and oxygen and removes wastes and carbon dioxide to processed or removed from the body. Hormones are transported throughout the body via the blood’s liquid plasma. • Protection: The cardiovascular system protects the body through its white blood cells. White blood cells clean up cellular debris and fight pathogens that have entered the body. Platelets red blood cells form scabs to seal wounds and prevent pathogens from entering the body and liquids from leaking out. Blood also carries antibodies that provide specific immunity to pathogens that the body has previously been exposed to or has been vaccinated against. • Regulation: The cardiovascular system is instrumental in the body’s ability to maintain homeostatic control of several internal conditions. Blood vessels help maintain a stable body temperature by controlling the blood flow to the surface of the skin. Blood vessels near the s surface open during times of overheating to allow hot blood to dump its heat into the body’s surroundings. In the case of hypothermia, these blood vessels constrict to keep blood flowing only to vital organs in the body’s core. Blood also helps balance the body’s pH due to the presence of bicarbonate ions, which act as a buffer solution. Finally, the albumins in blood pla help to balance the osmotic concentration of the body’s cells by maintaining an isotonic environment.