Autoclaved aerated concrete
It is a lightweight, precast building material
that simultaneously provides structure,
insulation, and fire and mold resistance. AAC
products include blocks, wall panels, floor and
roof panels, and lintels.
It has been refined into a highly thermally
insulating concrete-based material used for
both internal and external construction.
Besides AAC's insulating capability, one of its
advantages in construction is its quick and
easy installation, for the material can be
routed, sanded, and cut to size on site using
standard carbon steel bandsaws, hand saws,
and drills.
Even though regular cement mortar can be
used, 98% of the buildings erected with AAC
materials use thin bed mortar, which comes to
deployment in a thickness of ⅛ inch. This
varies according to national building codes and
creates solid and compact building members.
AAC material can be coated with a stucco
compound or plaster against the elements.
Siding materials such as brick or vinyl siding
can also be used to cover the outside of AAC
Asphalt Concrete
Asphalt concrete is a composite material
commonly used in construction projects such
as road surfaces, airports and parking lots. It
consists of asphalt (used as a binder) and
mineral aggregate mixed together, then laid
down in layers and compacted. It is also
increasingly used as the core for embankment
Autoclaved aerated concrete
Biorock, also known as Seacrete, is a
substance formed by electro-accumulation of
minerals dissolved in seawater. The building
process, popularly called accretion, is not to
be confused with Biorock sewage treatment.
The biorock building process grows cementlike engineering structures and marine
ecosystems, often for mariculture of corals,
oysters, clams, lobsters and fish in salt water. It
works by passing a small electrical current
through electrodes in the water. The structure
grows more or less without limit as long as
current flows.
The term ferrocement is most commonly
applied to a mixture of Portland cement and
sand reinforced with layers of woven or
expanded steel mesh and closely spaced
small-diameter steel rods rebar. It can be used
to form relatively thin, compound curved
sheets to make hulls for boats, shell roofs,
water tanks, etc
Ferrocement Bench
Fiber-Reinforced Concrete
Fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) is concrete
containing fibrous material which increases its
structural integrity. It contains short discrete
fibers that are uniformly distributed and
randomly oriented. Fibers include steel fibers,
glass fibers, synthetic fibers and natural fibers.
Within these different fibers that character of
fiber-reinforced concrete changes with varying
concretes, fiber materials, geometries,
distribution, orientation and densities.
Lunarcrete, also known as "Mooncrete", an
idea first proposed by Larry A. Beyer of the
University of Pittsburgh in 1985, is a
hypothetical aggregate building material,
similar to concrete, formed from lunar
regolith, that would cut the construction
costs of building on the Moon
Terrazzo is a composite material poured in
place or precast, which is used for floor and
wall treatments. It consists of marble,
quartz, granite, glass or other suitable
chips, sprinkled or unsprinkled, and poured
with a binder that is cementitious, chemical
or a combination of both. Terrazzo is cured,
ground and polished to a smooth surface or
otherwise finished to produce a uniformly
textured surface.
LiTraCon is a trademark for a translucent
concrete building material. The name is
short for "light-transmitting concrete". The
technical data sheet from the manufacturer
says the material is made of 96% concrete
and 4% by weight of optical fibers, it was
developed in 2001 by Hungarian architect
Áron Losonczi working with scientists at the
Technical University of Budapest.
Pykrete is a composite material
made of approximately 14 percent
sawdust or some other form of
wood pulp (such as paper) and 86
percent ice by weight. Its use was
proposed during World War II by
Geoffrey Pyke to the British Royal
Navy as a candidate material for
making a huge, unsinkable aircraft
carrier. Pykrete has some
interesting properties, notably its
relatively slow melting rate
(because of low thermal
conductivity), and its vastly
improved strength and toughness
over unmodified (crystalline) ice; it
is closer in form to concrete.
Pykrete is slightly more difficult to
form than concrete, as it expands
during the freezing process.
However, it can be repaired and
maintained using seawater. The
mixture can be moulded into any
shape and frozen, and it will be
extremely tough and durable, as
long as it is kept at or below
Silica Fume
Silica fume is added to Portland cement
concrete to improve its properties, in
particular its compressive strength, bond
strength, and abrasion resistance. These
improvements stem from both the
mechanical improvements resulting from
addition of a very fine powder to the
cement paste mix as well as from the
pozzolanic reactions between the silica
fume and free calcium hydroxide in the
paste. Addition of silica fume also reduces
the permeability of concrete to chloride
ions, which protects the reinforcing steel of
concrete from corrosion, especially in
chloride-rich environments such as coastal
regions and those of humid continental
roadways and runways (because of the use
of deicing salts) and saltwater bridges.
Seeded Aggregate Finish
Seeded Aggregate Finish: Small decorative
stones are imbedded into the top layer of
concrete, and during the finishing process,
exposed to give a pebble texture to the
concrete finish. This is a similar technique
to exposed concrete, but instead of
exposing the natural concrete aggregate,
decorative aggregate is added when
Photocatalysts, Self-Cleaning Concrete:
When used on or in a concrete structure,
photocatalysts decompose organic
materials that foul the surface. The organic
compounds affected by photocatalysts
include dirt (soot, grime, oil and
particulates) biological organisms (mold,
algae, bacteria and allergens), air-borne
pollutants (VOCs including formaldehyde
and benzene; tobacco smoke; and the
nitrous oxides (NOx) and sulfuric oxides
(SOx) that are significant factors in smog),
and even the chemicals that cause odors.
The catalyzed compounds break down into
oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, sulfate,
nitrate and other molecules that are either
beneficial to or at have a relatively benign
impact on the environment. Most inorganic
pollutants and stains, including rust, are not
White Cement Concrete
White cement concrete: White Portland
cement is used in combination with white
aggregates to produce white concrete for
prestige construction projects and
decorative work. White concrete usually
takes the form of pre-cast cladding panels,
since it is not economical to use white
cement for structural purposes. White
Portland cement is also used in
combination with inorganic pigments to
produce brightly colored concretes and
mortars. Ordinary cement, when used with
pigments, produces colors that may be
attractive, but are somewhat dull. With
white cement, bright reds, yellows and
greens can be readily produced. Blue
concrete can also be made, at some
expense. The pigments may be added at
the concrete mixer. Alternatively, to
guarantee repeatable color, some
manufacturers supply ready-blended
colored cements, using white cement as a
Papercrete is an alternative construction
material made from a paper-like fibrous
material mixed, Portland cement and clay
or soil. Papercrete dates back to 1928 when
it was first patented. Since the late 80′s
Papercrete has had renewed interest as an
alternative or environmentally friendly
building material due the amount recycled
paper used to make it. The fiber in
Papercrete makes it fairly flexible which
tends to crack less than stucco mixes. It is
commonly used in earthbag and rounded or
domed structures. Once dry it has a fibrous
texture and gray in color.
Recycled Aggregate Concrete
The reuse of hardened concrete as aggregate
is a proven technology - it can be crushed and
reused as a partial replacement for natural
aggregate in new concrete construction. The
hardened concrete can be sourced either from
the demolition of concrete structures at the
end of their life – recycled concrete aggregate,
or from leftover fresh concrete which is
purposefully left to harden – leftover
concrete aggregate. Alternatively fresh
concrete which is leftover or surplus to site
requirements can be recovered by separating
out the wet fines fraction and the coarse
aggregate for reuse in concrete manufacture –
recovered concrete aggregate. Additionally,
waste materials from other industries such as
crushed glass can be used as secondary
aggregates in concrete. All these
processes avoid dumping to landfill whilst
conserving natural aggregate resources, and
are a better
environmental option.
Ductal Concrete
Ductal is a proprietary pre-mixed ultra-high
performance concrete whose physical characteristics
exceed those of common concrete used in the
construction of buildings. It is manufactured by Lafarge
and Bouygues. Ductal has high compressive strength
and flexural resistance compared to other concretes. It
also has high durability, abrasion resistance, and
chemical/environmental resistances (e.g. freeze and
thaw, salt water, etc.). Due to these properties, Ductal
can be used in thinner cross-sections and in more
varied applications than common concrete. Ductal is
almost self-placing and is best suited for precast
elements or in-situ repair or upgrade works. The
constituents of Ductal are cement; fine sand, silica
fume and silica flour as a filler, additive and water,
using a low water cement ratio and may include highstrength steel fibers or non-metallic fibers.
Ductal is a ductile material that possesses ultra-high
compressive strength, high tensile strength and high
durability together with high fatigue performance. It
also has excellent impact, blast and abrasion
resistance. The type and quantities of special materials
used in Ductal result in a superior material that can
provide innovative and valuable solutions for a wide
range of applications; it is not a replacement for
ordinary concrete in applications that do not exploit its
unique properties and requires performance
engineering.[email protected]/4475167332/
The use of superplasticizers (high range
water reducer) has become a quite
common practice. This class of water
reducers were originally developed in Japan
and Germany in the early 1960s; they were
introduced in the United States in the mid1970s. They allow for increased workability
without the addition of any additional
Superplasticizers are linear polymers
containing sulfonic acid groups attached to
the polymer backbone at regular intervals
(Verbeck 1968). Most of the commercial
formulations belong to one of four families:
Sulfonated melamine-formaldehyde
condensates (SMF)
Sulfonated naphthalene-formaldehyde
condensates (SNF)
Modified lignosulfonates (MLS)
Polycarboxylate derivatives
Fiberous Concrete Reinforcement
Synthetic-fiber reinforcement to reinforce concrete in
non-structural applications
Synthetic-fiber reinforcement prevents cracks in
concrete, unlike WWF, which controls crack width -cracks actually need to occur before the WWF goes to
work. Small-diameter synthetic fibers (nylon, glass,
steel or polypropylene) are now being added to
concrete to reduce shrinkage cracking by more than
80% according to independent lab tests. Reducing
cracks improves concrete impermeability, increases its
toughness and long-term weatherability, and can
reduce callbacks in concrete slab floors, decks,
driveways, and walks. According to fiber
manufacturers, the placement, curing, or finish
characteristics of the concrete are not affected by the
addition of fibrous reinforcement.
Light Weight Concrete
The majority of regular concrete produced is in the density range of 150
pounds per cubic foot (pcf). The last decade has seen great strides in the
realm of dense concrete and fantastic compressive strengths (up to 20,000
psi) which mix designers have achieved. Yet regular concrete has some
drawbacks. It is heavy, hard to work with, and after it sets, one cannot cut or
nail into it without some difficulty or use of special tools. Some complaints
about it include the perception that it is cold and damp. Still, it is a
remarkable building material - fluid, strong, relatively cheap, and
environmentally innocuous. And, it is available in almost every part of the
Regular concrete with microscopic air bubbles added up to 7% is called air
entrained concrete. It is generally used for increasing the workability of wet
concrete and reducing the freeze-thaw damage by making it less permeable
to water absorption. Conventional air entrainment admixtures, while
providing relatively stable air in small quantities, have a limited range of
application and aren't well suited for specialty lightweight mix designs.
Lightweight concrete begins in the density range of less than 120 pcf. It has
traditionally been made using such aggregates as expanded shale, clay,
vermiculite, pumice, and scoria among others. Each have their peculiarities in
handling, especially the volcanic aggregates which need careful moisture
monitoring and are difficult to pump. Decreasing the weight and density
produces significant changes which improves many properties of concrete,
both in placement and application. Although this has been accomplished
primarily through the use of lightweight aggregates, since 1928 various
preformed foams have been added to mixes, further reducing weight. The
very lightest mixes (from 20 to 60 pcf) are often made using only foam as the
aggregate, and are referred to as cellular concrete. The entrapped air takes
the form of small, macroscopic, spherically shaped bubbles uniformly
dispersed in the concrete mix. Today foams are available which have a high
degree of compatibility with many of the admixtures currently used in
modern concrete mix designs. Gecko Stone of Hawaii is currently
experimenting with one such foam.
Foam used with either lightweight aggregates and/or admixtures such as fly
ash, silica fume, synthetic fiber reinforcement, and high range water reducers
(aka superplasticizers), has produced a new hybrid of concrete called
lightweight composite concrete, or LWC.
Polymer Concrete
Polymer concrete is part of group of concretes that use
polymers to supplement or replace cement as a binder.
The types include polymer-impregnated concrete,
polymer concrete, and polymer-Portland-cement
concrete. In polymer concrete, thermosetting resins
are used as the principal polymer component due to
their high thermal stability and resistance to a wide
variety of chemicals. Polymer concrete is also
composed of aggregates that include silica, quartz,
granite, limestone, and other high quality material. The
aggregate must be of good quality, free of dust and
other debris, and dry. Failure of these criteria can
reduce the bond strength between the polymer binder
and the aggregate. Polymer concrete may be used for
new construction or repairing of old concrete. The
adhesion properties of polymer concrete allow
patching for both polymer and cementitious concretes.
The low permeability of polymer concrete allows it to
be used in swimming pools, sewer pipes, drainage
channels, electrolytic cells for base metal recovery, and
other structures that contain liquids. It can also be
used as a replacement for asphalt pavement, for higher
durability and higher strength.
Porous Concrete
Cellular Concrete products are lightweight materials
produced by blending a cementitious slurry with a
stable, three-dimensional pre-formed foam meeting
ASTM C869. The foam is produced by diluting a liquid
concentrate with water, then pressurizing it with air
and forcing it through a conditioning nozzle. The foam
is then blended with a base mix consisting of cement,
fly ash, water and sometimes aggregate. This causes
the base mix to expand and become lighter. This
engineered, open-cell lightweight material is capable
of reducing loads without disturbing or re-directing
natural water flow. The air bubbles hold their shape
until the cement hydrates permanently trapping the air
in the material. The density and strength of the
material is a function of the mix design. While specific
Geofill product performance characteristics will vary,
all Geofill cellular concrete products offer these
substantial benefits:
Low Density/Lightweight - Lateral or vertical load reduction can be
achieved without reducing strength or stability. Densities range from
15 to 120 pounds per cubic foot.
High Bearing Capacity - Lightweight, yet stronger than soils or
compacted fills.
Extremely Pumpable - High air content makes it easy to pump Geofill
materials long distances at low pressures.
Highly Flowable - Self-leveling and will flow into and fill any void.
Compaction - No compaction is necessary. Use this product when
future settlement cannot be tolerated.
Thermal Insulating Properties - Provides good insulating qualities.
Energy Absorbing - As cellular concrete is compressed during impact,
resistance increases and kinetic energy is absorbed.
Concrete Fabric
Concrete Canvas (CC) is a flexible cement impregnated
fabric that hardens on hydration to form a thin, durable
water proof and fire proof concrete layer. Essentially,
it's concrete on a roll, all you have to do is just add
water. CC is supplied in rolls, 1.0 and 1.1m wide and in
lengths up to 200sqm. CC is available in 3 different
thicknesses, 5mm, 8mm and 13mm.