MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL
CHALENGES IN ZAMBIA
by
MORGAN KATATI MINING
INDABA NDOLA
17-
th
19
JULY, 2013
Presentation Overview
Background of the Environmental Management
Agency (ZIEM)
Mining and the Environment
Pollution associated with mining and effects
How can communities detect pollution
Action that can be taken by the communities
 Role of environmental agencies
Role of civic organisations
Critical points
Background of ZIEM
• Zambia Institute of environmental management is
a member based institution. Registered as non
governmental organization in Zambia
•
MISSION STATEMENT
• promotion of Environmental Governance and
sustainable environmental management
Ensure the upholding of the Environmental
Rights of citizens, that is:The right to clean, safe and healthy environment for
all
The right of access to environmental information
Function of ZIEM
1.Lobby & Advocacy
2.Environmental Management
3.Policy and Practice
4.Environmental Governance
5.Environmental Training
6.Climate Change Adaptation & mitigation
7.Facilitating, promoting and coordinating research
in environment and natural resources.
Mining and the Environment
 Historically, much focus in the mining industry as well as in
legislative frame work itself, has been on mining the mineral
ore at a super profit at the expense of the environment.
 It has to be noted that mining operations, including associated
facilities and infrastructure involves permanent alteration of
existing landforms, disturbance of flora and fauna, disruption
of habitats, social and economic impacts due to high level of
environmental degradation and contamination.
 Residual or permanent
environmental impacts at
decommissioning stage of mines that will need to be managed
with regards to public safety hazards and risk, potential sources
of ongoing pollution, future land use and resources demands,
ecological compatibility, community expectations and
aesthetics are inevitable.
Pollution associated with mining
 Air pollution
but what is air pollution????
Definition of air pollution
Air Pollution is the introduction of substances
or surplus energy as waste products of human
activities into the atmosphere which, directly
or indirectly, adversely alter or destroy the
quality of the environment or cause
undesirable effects on man, animals,
vegetation and materials.
Types of air pollution
Discreet particulates
– Smoke
– Dust
– Aerosol
– Fumes
– Mist
Vapors
Gases
Sources of Air pollution in mining
Fugitive dust from open cast mining
Access roads
Slimes Dams
 Ore Processing Plants
Effects of Air Pollution
Natural Ecosystems and Crops
– Acidification and eutrophication
– Ground level ozone
– Increased sensitivity of plant species to pest
attack
– Shifts in rainfall patterns and temperature regimes
– Diminished bio diversity e.g.
• Sensitive ecosystems
Cont...
Air pollution causes a serious threat to human
health
– 487,000 premature deaths in Asia every year
(WHO, 2001)
Cont......
Economic Impacts
Corrosion
• Studies in Europe have shown that the damage
per tonne of SO2 emitted ranged from US$ 86
to US$1,614.
• In Mufulira town, on the copper belt of Zambia,
the life span of roofing sheets on houses was
reduced 12 fold making maintenance more
costly by at least US$0.6 million.
Indicators of air pollution to
communities
Dust film of vegetation, infrastructure etc
Corrosion of metal roofing sheets
Increase in air pollution related illnesses:
wheezing, coughing, cheeky eyes
Loss of bio-diversity
Thermal inversions
Reduced plant growth
Indicators of Air Pollution
vegetation covered with dust at a limestone mining company
Indicators of Air Pollution (blowing
stakes)
Issues to be considered by mining
companies
 Identification of impacts
 Epidemiological assessment
– Baseline of disease occurrence
– Location of vulnerable population groups
– Dispersion modeling
 Assessment of impacts
– Spatial, temporal, magnitude, reversibility, probability,
dose response.
 Legal requirements
– Design specifications, velocity, particulate/ gas concentrations,
 Identification of appropriate abatement measures.
 Assessment of residual impacts.
WATER POLLUTION
Mines largely pollute water sources through
discharge of untreated effluent into rivers,
dams and under ground.
Effects of water Pollution
Impacts of effluent discharge into the
environment:
Eutrophication due high nitrates and phosphates
Oxygen depletion in water bodies affecting
aquatic life. Drinking water purification cost
skyrockets.
Bio-accumulation of heavy metals in organisms
Spread of water borne disease eg cholera and
typhoid
General water quality is affected leading to health
implication
How can communities notice water
pollution
Change in water colour
Development of smell
Drying of vegetation
Disease outbreak (water borne)
Change in water teste
Fish deaths and other aquatic life forms
Uncontrolled water weeds
Reduced bio-diversity
Presents of new species in water
Indicators of water pollution
Water weeds is an indication of water
pollution
How should communities react
pollution issues
Report the issues to respective environmental
Agencies for Action
Inform interested civic organisations for
appropriate action to be taken
Approach civil courts in the event of socioeconomic losses to claim damages
Role of Environmental Agencies
Regulate and monitor pollution loads into water
sources and the atmosphere
Arraign offenders before the courts
Carry out licensing programmes that reflects the
correct level of pollution from mining companies (
polluter pays principle)
Provide economic incentives to promote voluntary
compliance and reduction of pollution
Ambient air and water monitoring
Bio-monitoring
Role of Civic organisation
Partner with environmental Agencies to organise
and educate communities on their environmental
rights
Educate communities on basic environmental law
Do advocacy on behalf of communities
Play an over sight role on environmental agencies
Train communities on basic environmental
monitoring and reporting
Challenges in proving air and water
pollution cases before the courts
EXPERT EVIDENCE
ON ECONOMIC,
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL
ISSUES
PHOTOGRAPHIC
EVIDENCE
RELIABLE
EVIDENCE
SCIENTIFIC
REPORTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL
EFFECTS
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS
OF
AIR, WATER AND
LAND DISCHARGES
Cont...
• Samples properly captured
• “Chain of custody” of samples,
cradle to grave
• Transportation and storage of samples in
manner preserving integrity
• Analysis pursuant to good laboratory
practices, including properly calibrated and
clean equipment
Critical points
Socio-economic development in the long term
is affected by environmental pollution, so lets
deal with it now!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Thank You
Morgan Katati
Zambia Institute of Environmental Management
Tel: +260 97 7 324410
E-Mail: [email protected]/ [email protected]
Download

ZAMBIA-INSTITUTE-OF-ENVIRONMENTAL