For Life and Breath
Path to Healthier Air:
Toronto Air Pollution
Burden of Illness Update
Stephanie Gower
Toronto Public Health
Co-authors: Ronald Macfarlane,
Marco Belmont, Kate Bassil, Monica
Campbell
May 1, 2014
Toronto and Toronto Public Health
• Toronto Public Health is the
largest local public health
agency in Canada
• Mandate: programs and
services that contribute to
the health and well-being of
residents
What has changed in 10 years?
2004
Today
Health Impacts of Air Pollution
• Air pollution in Toronto from all sources currently
gives rise to 1,300 premature deaths and 3,550
hospitalizations annually
• This represents a decrease of 23% in premature
deaths and 41% in hospitalizations as compared
with 2004 estimates
Prepared by: Toronto Public Health
Health Impacts of Local Air Pollution
• Traffic is the most
significant local source
of air pollution and
resulting burden of
illness
• Other sources also
contribute to the
overall burden of
illness from air
pollution
Premature Deaths
Hospitalizations
Pyramid of Health Effects from
Traffic-Related Air Pollution
Year
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
Year
Year
Annual average O3
30.0
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
2012
2011
2010
2009
1.0
2008
Year
2007
Annual average CO
2006
Year
Annual average PM2.5
0.9
12.0
10.0
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
0.0
2003
0.5
2005
1.0
2002
1.5
2001
2.0
2004
2.5
2000
4.5
2003
3.0
1999
3.5
Concentration of NO2 (ppb)
5.0
2002
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
Concentration of SO2 (ppb)
Annual Average SO2
Concentration of PM2.5 (mg/m3)
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
• Levels since 2009
have stagnated or
may be increasing
Concentration of CO (ppm)
• Most pollutants
show steady
decline since 2000
Concentration of O3 (ppb)
Toronto Air Quality Over Time
Annual average NO2
35.0
4.0
30.0
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
Actions make a Difference
Canada-Wide
Standards for
Particulate Matter
and Ozone
Photo: Hmvh1
Commuting Trends
Active Transportation
Heavy Truck Emissions
Highways
• Nitrogen Oxide
levels across
Toronto are
especially high
near major
highways
Energy Efficiency
• Emissions related to
natural gas
combustion are related
to about 28% of
premature deaths and
20% of hospitalizations
arising from air
pollution emitted with
Toronto's borders
Photos:
Andreas Meck
Gigantichound
SimonP
Industrial Emissions
• Air pollution from
large industries
contributes to
18% of premature
deaths and 10%
of hospitalizations
from air pollution
emitted within
Toronto
Local Variation in Air Quality
• Burden of illness
numbers are
averages for Toronto
• Air Monitoring and Air
Modelling are tools
that can help provide
information at the
neighbourhood scale
Photo: Martin Cathrae
Key Policy Recommendations
• Ontario to fund municipal transit and active transportation
infrastructure to reduce air pollution emissions in Toronto and the
GTHA;
• ensure that all Metrolinx "Big Move" projects incorporate safe
infrastructure for pedestrians and cyclists to encourage travel that
reduces air pollution emissions;
• the City of Toronto develop an urban freight strategy to improve
efficiency and co-ordination of heavy-duty vehicles which often have
high emissions;
• the City of Toronto explore design solutions to mitigate impacts of
highway emissions on nearby residential areas;
• improve access to air monitoring equipment that can measure air
pollution levels on and near roads by sharing costs with
neighbouring municipalities and the provincial government.
Next Steps
• City Council May
6-7 2014
• Provincial
Election?
For more information
[email protected]
www.toronto.ca/health/reports
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Burden of Illness from Air Quality in Toronto – Stephanie Gower