Better Waste Solutions
Producing market-competitive products from waste
BWS Better Waste Solutions Global Ltd.
Innovative Technology
Waste-to-Green Product Technologies: Viable Options for
Fuel Cost Reduction and Sustainable Waste Management
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Un-utilized Resources
Municipal Solid Waste
Waste Plastic
Hospital Waste
Sewage Sludge
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Oil and Fertilizer Prices Change
Fig.2. Energy and fertilizer prices
(Source: Mueller et al., 2011)
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Condition for profitable Waste-to-GreenProduct Business
Income from
Waste
Treatment
Increase
・Deficiency of
landfill area
・Environmental
concern on
land-filling
+
Income from
selling product
>
Increase
・Fuel price
increase
・Fertilizer price
increase
+
Labor cost
Decrease
・Automation
・Cheap labor
Utility cost
+
Decrease
・Self energy
generation
Capital cost
Decrease
・Technology
standardization
・Technology
licensing
Effect of New
Te c h n o l o g i e s
New
Market
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Resource Recycling system
① Waste-to-Coal Technology
MSW (Municipal Solid Waste), Hospital Waste
② Waste-to-Fertilizer Technology
Sewage Sludge, Animal Manure, Food Waste
③ Waste-to-Oil Technology
Waste Plastics, E-Waste (Mobile Phone, PC)
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① Waste-to-Coal Technology
Hydrothermal Treatment of MSW
MSW input
Fuel
Dry Product
Boiler
Steam
(220℃,2.5MPa)
Motor
Reactor
Airblow
drying
Product
Clean Water
Water
Treatment
(85%)
Cement Kiln
Water
Condenser
(15%)
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Application of Waste-to-Coal
In Cement Production
Treated
MSW
Material
input
Coal
Mixer
Bunker
Pulverizer
MSW = Municipal Solid Waste
product out
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Commercial Plants
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Economical Feasibility of Waste to Coal
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Treatment capacity of MSW : 100tons/day
Investment for full treatment plant with 2 reactors – 3 M US$.
Moisture content of MSW : 65 %
Production per annum on dry basis –12,600 tons/year (100tons/day X 0.35 X 360
days)
Boiler fuel: 15% of RDF will be utilized as a boiler fuel – 1,890 tons/year
Annual operation period: 360days
Daily operation: 24 hours/day
Maintenance cost/year (2% of the capital cost) – 0.06 M US$/year
VC and FC – (labor, electricity… ) – 0.06 M US$/year
Capital cost (7 years depreciation) – 0.43 M US$/year
Total expenditure – 0.55 M US$/year
Fuel production cost – 51 US$/ton (0.55 M US$/year/ ((12,600-1,890))tons/year)
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② Waste-to-Fertilizer Technology
Sewage Sludge Treatment
Hydrothermal treatment
Water content 80%
Heavy metal
Fast natural drying (24 hours)
Water content 10~20%
Water
content
85%
Mechanical
dehydration
Water content 55%
Nutrient (N, P, K)
Separated water
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Economical Feasibility of Waste-to-Fertilizer
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Treatment capacity of Sewage sludge : 30tons/day
Investment for full treatment plant with 2 reactors – 1 M US$
Moisture content of sludge : 80 %
Solid fuel production per annum on dry basis –2,160 tons/year (30tons/day X 0.2 X 360
days)
Boiler fuel: 100% of RDF will be utilized as a boiler fuel – 2,160tons/year
Liquid fertilizer production per annum –10,800tons/year (30tons/day X 360days)
Annual operation period: 360days
Daily operation: 24 hours/day
Maintenance cost/year (2% of the capital cost) – 0.02 M US$/year
VC and FC – (labor, electricity… ) – 0.02 M US$/year
Capital cost (7 years depreciation) – 0.14 M US$/year
Total expenditure – 0.18 M US$/year
Production cost of the liquid fertilizer – 17 US$/ton (0.18 M US$/year/ (10,800tons/year))
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③ Waste-to-Oil Technology
Flow Chart Plastic to Oil
Waste plastics
Agitator
Reforming catalyst
Stack
Cooler
煙
突
Screw
hopper
Heated
extruder
Circulation
pump
No.2
Condenser
Pyrolyzer
No.1
Condensor
Burner
Oil/water separation
Oil/water
separation
Oil
recov
ery
Residue
recovery
Off-gas
burner
Oil
recover
Oil
pump
Oil
pump
Controller
Oil
tank
Oil
tank
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Commercial Plants
Recycled oil
Carbonized solid
Meta
l
Waste Mobile Phone (2 m3) (Japan)
Waste Plastics (5 m3) (Japan)
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Economical Feasibility of Waste to Oil
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Treatment capacity of waste plastics : 10tons/day
Investment for full treatment plant – 1.2 M US$
Net oil production per annum –1,800,000 L (5,000 L/day X 360 days)
Annual operation period: 360days
Daily operation: 24 hours/day
Maintenance cost/year (2% of the capital cost) – 0.024 M US$
Labor cost/year – 0.02 M US$
Capital cost (7 years depreciation) – 0.17 M US$
Total expenditure – 0.214 M US$/year
Oil production cost – 12 US¢/L (0.214 M US$/year/ (1,800,000 L/year))
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