The Establishment of
National GAP Programs
Purpose of the Module
To present an overview of developments with the
implementation of national GAP programs within the
ASEAN region
Outcome of the Module
Participants will learn the experiences of
establishment of national GAP programs of selected
Overview of the Module
- The alignments of national GAP programs to ASEAN
- The recommended process for developing new
national GAP programs
Based on the study conducted and presented in the
Training Course on ASEAN GAP for FFV during 25-29 FEB
2008 in Thailand at the AVRDC-Asian Regional Centre, it
found that Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore and the
Philippines have aligned their national GAP Programs with
safety module of ASEAN GAP for FFV while the alignment
with the other three modules, namely the Environmental
management, Worker’s health, safety and welfare, and
Produce quality varies depending on the objectives of their
national programs.
Partial alignment exists because many Practices used
to manage food safety also have benefits for produce quality
and protection of the environment and workers.
All of those programs are voluntary and managed
by government departments in each country. The
government provides all of associated servicesadministration, training, auditing and certification
All other ASEAN countries are at different stages
of developments of national GAP programs.
GAP in Selected Countries
1. Malaysia
The SALM-Skim Amalan Ladang Baik Malaysia or
Good Agriculture Practice Scheme Malaysia developed in
2003 provides certification for farm that use GAP to
produce safe, quality produce and prevent harm to the
environment and worker health, safety and welfare.
SALM Certification requires compliance with 16
elements, which are based on the GLOBALGAP
standard. The practices in each element are classified as
“major must” or “minor must” or “encouraged”. To
achieve certification, all of the 29 “major musts” 95% of
the “minor musts”, and 50% of the “encouraged”
practices must be implemented.
2. Singapore
The voluntary GAP-VF certification scheme was
launched in 2004. It is aimed at the intensive vegetable
farming sector. The scheme focuses on food safety and
has six components-farm location, farm structure, farm
environment, farm maintenance, farm practices/
methods/techniques, and farm management.
The GAP-VF logo is promoted to consumers to
provide confidence that produce grown by certified
farms is traceable and safe to eat.
3. Indonesia
The GAP program in Indonesia was developed in
2004. It covers the production of fruit and vegetable
crops to assure quality and safety for producers,
consumers and the environment and the sustainability of
the production system.
The program has 16 elements, which are based on
the GLOBALGAP standard. The practices in each
element are classified as “must” or “highly
recommended” or “recommended”.
There are three levels of certification-Prime One
for produce that is safe for consumption, good in quality
and produced with environmentally friendly processes of
technologies, Prime Two for produce that is safe for
consumption and good in quality, and Prime Three for
produce that is safe for consumption.
4. The Philippine
The program for GAP for FV Farming was
launched in 2006. The objectives are to increase market
access in both local and foreign markets, empower
farmers to respond to consumer demand for food safety
and quality, and facilitate adoption of sustainable
The program has six components-farm location,
farm structure, farm environment, farm maintenance,
farm practices and farm management.
5. Thailand
The Q GAP Program was launched in 2003 to
ensure that food crops produced in Thailand are safe,
wholesome and meet the required standards. Q GAP has
initially three levels-production processes for (1) safe
products, (2) safe and pest-free products, and (3) safe,
pest-free and quality products.
To help guide farmers, the Thai Department of
Agriculture has developed 28 crop manuals that
describes practices required to improve yield, quality and
food safety. Topics include varieties, cultivation,
fertilizing, irrigation, crop sanitation, crop protection,
safe pesticide use, harvesting, transportation and record
The Q GAP Mark is promoted to supply chain
customers and to customers to provide confidence that
produce grown by certified farms is safe to eat.
In 2008, the Agricultural Standards Act has been
promulgated to be a legal framework in which standards
for farm produces will be established, certified and
controlled. Initially, the established standards will be
implemented voluntarily. However, mandatory standards
will be implemented where circumstances on food safety
and its public concerns are so required.
The accreditation and certification for agricultural
standards are also regulated by this and other relevant
laws. Therefore, all of the Q GAP program implementing
before the enactment of this law shall be transited
thereto and enforced by this law.
6. Vietnam
VietGAP was officially released on 28th January
2008 where the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural
Development has decided to drive the development of a
national Vietnam GAP system; called VietGAP. VietGAP
is based on the ASEAN GAP model but was also designed
to meet the specific needs of the Vietnamese fresh fruit
and vegetables industry.
VietGAP consists of twelve sections including the
Site assessment and selection, Planting material, Soil
and substrates, Fertilisers and soil additives, Water,
Chemicals, Harvesting and handling produce, Waste
management and treatment, Workers and training,
Documents, records, traceability and recall, Internal
audit and Complaint and resolve complaint of fresh fruit
and vegetables on farm which are in line with four
modules of ASEAN GAP for FFV namely food safety,
environmental management, worker health, safety and
welfare, and produce quality.
The Department of Science and Technology (DST)
and the Vietnamese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
(VAAS) were nominated to develop a national GAP
system for Vietnam.
Developing New National GAP Programs
Based on the experiences of member countries
who have implemented a national GAP program, the
following steps are critical to developing a national GAP
1. Gain high level support from policy makers in
government to develop a national GAP program.
2. Prepare and submit proposal including situation
analysis, options, priorities, budget and action plan for
establishing GAP program to Department Executive.
3. Assemble implementation team and engage expertise
and collaborators (provinces, other departments, local
government) to provide support.
4. Inform stakeholders of proposal and seek support.
5. Complete situation analysis (scan external and
internal environment, including review of other national
GAP programs and ASEAN GAP.
6. Design structure and develop action plan for
implementation, and gain support from key decision
makers-roles and responsibilities, management process,
scope of standard, certification and auditing,
communication, training and finance.
7. Develop code of practice (standard) in consultation
with key stakeholders (align to ASEAN GAP)
8. Test code of practice on demonstration farms and
modify as required.
9. Establish a legal framework for GAP program.
10. Establish management body and administration
11. Establish processes for accreditation of certification
bodies and auditing of farmers.
12. Establish infrastructure-eg analytical laboratories.
13. Inform producers about GAP program and process of
certification (eg procedures and compliance criteria).
14. Train trainers, extension officers and auditors.
15. Launch and implement GAP Program.
16. Establish process for continuous review of GAP

Establishment of National GAP program