ISHRAE : Acre Serve
Living in harmony with Nature
Renewable Energy
In Buildings
Tejwant Navalkar
Mar 2014
AGENDA
Living in harmony with Nature
 The need for Renewable Energy
 Renewable Energy – An Introduction
 Solar Energy – An Overview
 Traditional Solar PV Solutions
 Solar Thermal Solutions
 CASE STUDY – A 240.7m tall Building
• Building Features
• Solar Hot Water Schematic
• Challenges in implementing Renewable Energy
• Solution for Hot Water Generation
 Other Applications
Energy Scenario in INDIA
Living in harmony with Nature
In INDIA, despite POWER being the life line of Progress there is :
• Acute shortage of Energy, Power Cuts leading to Erratic Power
supply and loss of production, comfort.
• Ever rising cost of power per unit due to high cost of distribution
and transmission, subsidies and power thefts
• Increasing deficit between Power Generation and Demand
resulting out of rapid infra-structural development and industrial
growth
• High Environmental damage caused by traditional Energy
Resources and Power Plants resulting in global warming
• Average Indian is being held to ransom by the Oil Producing
countries
Why Renewable Energy
Living in harmony with Nature
Alternate Source of Energy is the need of the hour and would
provide the means to :
• Combat rising energy prices by harnessing Perpetual sources
of Energy - Wind, Solar, Water and Geo-Thermal Energy
• Virtual ZERO Global Warming
• Achieve Freedom and Insulation from Crude Oil Price
fluctuations
• Self Reliance, since Renewable Energy Generation can be
set up at point of usage, thereby reducing Transmission
Losses and Pilferage
• Increase bottom lines due to guarantee in meeting production
schedules, minimal loss of productive time and fixed price of
energy
Living in harmony with Nature
RENEWABLE ENERGY : An Overview
Living in harmony with Nature
 Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Systems
 Solar Thermal Solutions
 Wind Turbine
 Bio-gas for cooking & electricity generation
The Power of Solar – Some Awesome Figures
Living in harmony with Nature
•
SOLAR Provides the best alternative for meeting the
Industrial and Domestic needs the world over
•
The sun provides with 174 Petawatts (PW) of solar
energy,
•
The world uses 16 Terrawatts (0.009%) of this
energy today
•
More than 50% of Energy Needs are thermal (Heat)
1 Terrawatt = 1012 W
1 Petawatt = 1015 W
Living in harmony with Nature
What is Photovoltaics
Living in harmony with Nature
• In Photovoltaic (solar) systems light energy is converted
into electricity.
• A Solar Cell is the basic element of each photovoltaic
system.
• Solar cells produce direct current electricity from light,
which can be used to power equipment or to recharge a
battery .
• The first practical application of photovoltaics was to power
orbiting satellites and other spacecraft.
Components of Solar Modules
Living in harmony with Nature
Solar Photovoltaic based Solutions
Living in harmony with Nature
•
Solar Farms for Uploading to Grid – MW scale
•
Solar Off-Grid Solutions for Diesel reduction – 100 KW scale
•
Solar Stand-alone systems for small systems – W scale
KW- Scale (Small)
100KW- Scale (Med)
MW- Scale (Large)
PV special
solutions
PV Off-grid
systems
PV power plants
Public buildings
Telecommunications
Free field plants
Private buildings
Special architectural
applications
PV for roof top
applications
On-roof installations
On-roof PV plants
Large-scale free field
Typical Off-grid Solar PV Systems
Living in harmony with Nature
Typical Solar Based Backup Grid
Living in harmony with Nature
Grid Supply
Solar Panels
Battery Bank
3-Ph Inverter
D G Set
MAIN LT PANEL
Challenges in Implementing Photovoltaic (PV) Systems
Living in harmony with Nature
• Storage is mainly Battery based and inherits its inefficiencies
• Battery replacement is a recurring cost
• Most Electrical equipment run on AC Supply, hence PV
System requires 3 levels of conversions :
Battery Charging/ Discharing
Inverter DCAC
• This results in about 20% to 27% additional losses
• Lack of Net Metering for small and medium systems
• Large PV Systems rely heavily on government subsidies and
policies
Batteries are like Bottles
Living in harmony with Nature
•
Storage Batteries are like bottles
•
The Time taken to fill-up or empty the bottle is determined
by the bottle neck.
•
Similarly time taken to charge a battery is determined by
the Charge rate of a battery
•
Simply increasing battery capacity does not ensure
capturing the full energy generated by Renewable
Resources
Living in harmony with Nature
Solar Water Heaters – Evacuated Tube Collectors
Living in harmony with Nature
Domestic Solar Water Heaters Consumption Pattern
Living in harmony with Nature
Domestic Solar Water Heaters Generation Deficit Pattern
Living in harmony with Nature
Challenges in Implementing Solar Thermal in Buildings
Living in harmony with Nature
• As seen from the previous charts, the Domestic Hot Water
Requirement Peak does not match with the generation peak
• Storage of Thermal Energy is not used
• A lot of generated energy is wasted through overheating and
therefore steaming due to lack of demand at generation peaks
• Very little control on the temperature and availability
• Due to lop-sided generation and utilization, hot water availability
is largely on first come first served basis
• Lack of terrace areas to cater to the complete demands of the
building
Living in harmony with Nature
What are Phase Change Materials
Living in harmony with Nature
•
Phase Change Materials (PCM) are hydrated salts /
organic mixtures that have capacity to store large
amount of heat in the form of Latent Heat.
•
This Latent Heat is absorbed or released when the
materials change state from solid to liquid or liquid to
solid.
•
The PCM retains its latent heat without any change in
physical or chemical properties over thousands of
cycles.
•
Various specific temperature PCM’s are commercially
available in the market for various applications.
PCM packed in HDPE/PP nodules
Properties of a Typical Phase Change Material
Living in harmony with Nature
Pluss Polymers Pvt. Ltd.
www.pluss.co.in
Thermal Storage using Phase Change Materials
Living in harmony with Nature
Building Flats/
Apartments
Building Flats/
Apartments
Building Flats/
Apartments
Building Flats/
Apartments
Living in harmony with Nature
CASE STUDY – 200m Tall Building
Living in harmony with Nature
The Proposed Residential Project is spread over
365,735 sq.ft of land and is located Central Mumbai.
The Project has the following features:
 G + Podium floor(5nos) + atrium + 59floors
with 2BHK, 3BHK and 4BHK flats and 5BHK
(Penthouses)
 Sale Building having height of approximately
240.7m
CASE STUDY – 200m Tall Building
Living in harmony with Nature
 BASIC PROJECT DATA :

Built-up Area : Approximately 44,700 sqm

Terrace Area : About 400 sqm in two levels

Total Flats : 148 (Mix of 2BHK, 3BHK, 4BHK & Penthouses)

Expected occupancy : 1100

Total Water Requirements : 140,000 litres/day

Hot Water Requirements : 55,000 litres/ day
CASE STUDY – 200m Tall Building
Living in harmony with Nature
 CONSTRAINTS IN IMPLEMENTING RENEWABLE ENERGY :

Limited Terrace Area (400sqm in two levels)

This can only accommodate provide 7,000 litres solar Water
heater

Total Requirement was for 55,000 litres
Solar Hot Water Distribution Schematic
Living in harmony with Nature
OH Domestic
Water Tank
OH Hot
Water Tank
ZONE – 1
ZONE – 2
ZONE – 3
ZONE – 4
Terrace Floor
68nd Floor
58th Floor
57th
Floor
PCM Storage
Tank
56st Floor
38th Floor
37th Floor
PCM Storage
Tank
36th Floor
19th Floor
18th Floor
Gr. Floor
PCM Storage
Tank
CASE STUDY – 200m Tall Building
Living in harmony with Nature
 SOLUTION IN IMPLEMENTING RENEWABLE ENERGY :

Only Solar Thermal Collectors of 400sqm installed

A small buffer vessel is located at the terrace level for directly
drawing heat energy from collectors (conventional thermosiphon)

Three Intermediate PCM Tanks of about 20m3 at three levels
installed

Thermostat controlled Circulating pumps use to capture store
heat in the intermediate tanks
Living in harmony with Nature
INDUSTRIAL PROCESS HEATING - REQUIREMENTS
Living in harmony with Nature
SOLAR THERMAL APPLICATIONS
Living in harmony with Nature
SOLAR THERMAL APPLICATIONS
Living in harmony with Nature
SOLAR COOLING APPLICATION
Living in harmony with Nature
Solar Dehydration in Food Processing
Living in harmony with Nature
Open Sun Drying
Solar Air Drying (Dehydration)
Delayed Drying
Fast Drying
Problems of contamination by birds,
insects, etc
No contamination
Less Hygenic, Poor Visual quality
Clean and completely hygenic and
superior texture and quality
Inferior Product Quality
Better Quality of product
Drying possible only on Sunny days
Possible on partly cloudy days as well
as monsoons using electrical backup
Uneven Drying
Even Drying
Not suited for large scale production
Ideally suited for a cluster or
community initiative
More nutrient losses
Nutrients retained
Low Proift Margins
Better profits due to superior product
Solar Air Dryers in Food Processing
Living in harmony with Nature
Solar Based Air Drying Applications
Living in harmony with Nature
Conclusion
Living in harmony with Nature
 It is extremely important to understand that NO single
Renewable Source of Energy can fulfil the complete annual
requirements of an end user
 It is essential to study the customer's requirement, the
availability of renewable resources in the specific location
 Requirement of customized solutions based on specific
needs
 The key to making Renewable Energy Solutions effective, is I
in providing Integration of the various Renewable Energy
Resources
Renewable Energy Usage – The Beneficiaries
Living in harmony with Nature
Contact Details
Living in harmony with Nature
Tejwant Navalkar
Engineering & Renewable Energy Solutions
Your Partner
in
Designing For eXcellence
www.dfxsystems.org
Tel: 91-22-2432 4083
Fax: 91-22-2432 5644
Tejwant Navalkar : +91-9821411436
[email protected]
Living in harmony with Nature
Download

ISHRAE AcreServe : Renewable Energy