Toxicologia para emergências
HAZMAT
Carlos André Vaz Junior
Qual o nível de poluição aceitável?
Métricas específicas para essas situações:
http://www.aiha.org/insideaiha/GuidelineDevelopment/ERPG/Documents/ERPG_Values2010.pdf
http://www.aiha.org/insideaiha/GuidelineDevelopment/ERPG/Documents/2011erpgweelhandbook_table-only.pdf
Definições:
The ERPG-1 is the maximum airborne concentration below which it is believed that nearly all
individuals could be exposed for up to 1 hr without experiencing other than mild transient
adverse health effects or perceiving a clearly defined, objectionable odor.
The ERPG-2 is the maximum airborne concentration below which it is believed that nearly all
individuals could be exposed for up to 1 hr without experiencing or developing irreversible or
other serious health effects or symptoms which could impair an individual's ability to take
protective action.
The ERPG-3 is the maximum airborne concentration below which it is believed that nearly all
individuals could be exposed for up to 1 hour without experiencing or developing lifethreatening health effects.
AEGL: Acute Emergency Guideline Levels
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Represent threshold exposure limits for the general public and are applicable
to emergency exposures ranging from 10 minutes to 8 hours. Three levels—
AEGL-1, AEGL-2, AEGL-3—are developed for each of five exposure periods (10
minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 4 hours, and 8 hours) and are distinguished by
varying degrees of severity of toxic effects. DOE guidance is to use the 1 hour
AEGL values, which appear in this database.
http://www.epa.gov/oppt/aegl/index.htm
Definições:
AEGL-1 is the airborne concentration (expressed as ppm [parts per million] or
mg/m3 [milligrams per cubic meter]) of a substance above which it is predicted that the
general population, including susceptible individuals, could experience notable
discomfort, irritation, or certain asymptomatic, nonsensory effects. However, these
effects are not disabling and are transient and reversible upon cessation of exposure.
AEGL-2 is the airborne concentration (expressed as ppm or mg/m3) of a substance
above which it is predicted that the general population, including susceptible
individuals, could experience irreversible or other serious, long-lasting, adverse health
effects or an impaired ability to escape.
AEGL-3 is the airborne concentration (expressed as ppm or mg/m3) of a substance
above which it is predicted that the general population, including susceptible
individuals, could experience life-threatening adverse health effects or death.
http://www.epa.gov/oppt/aegl/pubs/define.htm
http://www.epa.gov/oppt/aegl/pubs/compiled_aegls_oct2010_v2.pdf
TEEL: Temporary Emergency Exposure Limits
SCAPA
TEEL-0 is the threshold concentration below which most people will experience no adverse
health effects.
TEEL-1 is the airborne concentration (expressed as ppm [parts per million] or
mg/m3 [milligrams per cubic meter]) of a substance above which it is predicted that the
general population, including susceptible individuals, could experience notable discomfort,
irritation, or certain asymptomatic, nonsensory effects. However, these effects are not
disabling and are transient and reversible upon cessation of exposure.
TEEL-2 is the airborne concentration (expressed as ppm or mg/m3) of a substance above
which it is predicted that the general population, including susceptible individuals, could
experience irreversible or other serious, long-lasting, adverse health effects or an impaired
ability to escape.
TEEL-3 is the airborne concentration (expressed as ppm or mg/m3) of a substance above
which it is predicted that the general population, including susceptible individuals, could
experience life-threatening adverse health effects or death.
Diferenças entre os índices:
There are subtle difference in the definitions of AEGLs, ERPGs, and TEELs and major
differences in how they are developed and issued. Differences in their definitions
include:
AEGLs and TEELs pertain to the “general population, including susceptible
individuals,” but ERPGs pertain to “nearly all individuals.”
AEGLs and TEELs are defined as the level “above which” certain health effects are
expected, while ERPGs are defined as the level “below which” certain health effects
are not expected.
ERPGs refer to exposure durations of 1 hour (with shorter periods for some
chemicals). AEGLs are developed for five time periods (i.e., 10-minutes, 30-minutes,
1-hour, 4-hours, and 8-hours); the PAC database includes the AEGL 1-hour value.
TEELs will be standardized on 1-hour in the near future.
Mais detalhes:
http://orise.orau.gov/emi/scapa/chem-pacs-teels/aegls-erpgs-teels.htm
AEGLs and ERPGs are developed through a rigorous review of primary sources of
toxicological information, and the values eventually assigned to each chemical are
individually peer reviewed. ERPGs are formed using a weight of evidence approach. AEGLs
are typically based on the results of a single key study. Both of these processes are
painstaking and time-consuming. Additionally, AEGLs are subject to a public comment
period and a further review by the National Academy of Science before being considered
final.
To produce limits in a more timely fashion while maintaining high quality, TEELs are
derived from secondary data sources using a peer-reviewed algorithm. These sources are
either existing exposure limits designed to prevent adverse effects in humans or
experimentally derived toxicity parameters. It is important to emphasize that TEELs are
considered temporary; they are approximations of potential values and are subject to
change whenever new or better information becomes available.
Additional information and reference links for AEGLs, ERPGs, and TEELs:
AEGLs
The U.S. EPA's AEGL Program has developed AEGLs to describe the risk to humans
resulting from once-in-a-lifetime, or rare, exposure to airborne chemicals. The National
Advisory Committee and National Research Council Committee on AEGLs are developing
these guidelines to help both national and local authorities, as well as private companies,
deal with emergencies involving spills, or other catastrophic exposures. The AEGL
Program web site provides information on the scientific and policy work in developing
AEGLs.
http://orise.orau.gov/emi/scapa/chem-pacs-teels/aegls-erpgs-teels.htm
AEGL Chemicals provides a searchable database of AEGL values, as well as a compiled
listing of AEGL values.
Because there can be a time lag between the release of new AEGLs and their
incorporation in a revised PAC data set, please consult the AEGL website for the latest
information on new AEGL releases.
ERPGs
The AIHA Emergency Response Planning Committee develops guidelines for responding
to potential releases of airborne substances for use in community emergency planning.
ERPGs are air concentration guidelines for single exposures to agents and are intended
for use as tools to assess the adequacy of accident prevention and emergency response
plans, including transportation emergency planning, community emergency response
plans and incident prevention and mitigation. The AIHA Emergency Response Planning
Committee website provides information on the development of ERPGs.
ERPGs Levels for Select Chemicals (a PDF file) provides the official listing of ERPG values.
Because there can be a time lag between the release of new ERPGs and their
incorporation in a revised PAC data set, please consult the ERPG website for the latest
information on new ERPG releases.
http://orise.orau.gov/emi/scapa/chem-pacs-teels/aegls-erpgs-teels.htm
TEELs
In the early 1990s, the DOE Office of Emergency Operations recognized that ERPGs
existed for only a limited number of chemicals (AEGL development did not start until
later in the decade.) As a result, the DOE Office of Emergency Operations asked SCAPA
for its recommendations on appropriate substitutes so that DOE facilities could conduct
appropriate emergency preparedness hazard analyses (EPHAs) and perform
consequence assessments. TEELs, first referred to as Alternative Guidelines Limits, were
initially released in October 1992 and included values for approximately 65 chemicals.
Today there are well over three thousand chemicals for which TEELs are used to provide
one or more PAC values.
The TEELs Method and Practices Handbook details the specific methods used to derive
TEEL values. It also presents background information, sample calculations showing how
TEELs are derived, and quality assurance measures used in the TEEL derivation process.
A list of useful reference documents related to TEELs is provided by SCAPA.
http://orise.orau.gov/emi/scapa/chem-pacs-teels/aegls-erpgs-teels.htm
PAC: Protective Action Criteria for Chemicals
(Chem PAC: Protective Action Criteria for Chemicals)
DOE: Department of Energy
Protective Action Criteria (PACs) are essential components for planning
and response to uncontrolled releases of hazardous chemicals. These
criteria, combined with estimates of exposure, provide the information
necessary to evaluate chemical release events for the purpose of
taking appropriate protective actions. During an emergency response,
these criteria may be used to evaluate the severity of the event, to
identify potential outcomes, and to decide what protective actions
should be taken. These criteria may also be used to estimate the
severity of consequences of an uncontrolled release and to plan for an
effective emergency response.
http://orise.orau.gov/emi/scapa/chem-pacs-teels/default.htm
PAC: Protective Action Criteria for Chemicals
(Chem PAC: Protective Action Criteria for Chemicals)
Definição:
PAC values for emergency planning for chemical release events are based on the following
exposure limit values:
AEGL: values published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
ERPG: values produced by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA)
TEEL: values developed by SCAPA
http://orise.orau.gov/emi/scapa/chem-pacs-teels/default.htm
PAC: Protective Action Criteria for Chemicals
(Chem PAC: Protective Action Criteria for Chemicals)
Definição:
For any particular chemical, DOE policy for its facilities and activities established the
following hierarchy of PAC values:
Use AEGLs (including final or interim values) if they are available.
If AEGLs are not available, use ERPGs.
If neither AEGLs or ERPGs are available, use TEELs.
http://orise.orau.gov/emi/scapa/chem-pacs-teels/default.htm
PAC: Protective Action Criteria for Chemicals
(Chem PAC: Protective Action Criteria for Chemicals)
Definição:
AEGLs, ERPGs, and TEELs have three common benchmark values for each chemical
(i.e., PAC-1, -2, and -3). Each successive benchmark is associated with an
increasingly severe effect that involves a higher level of exposure. The three
benchmarks present threshold levels for:
1. Mild, transient health effects.
2. Irreversible or other serious health effects that could impair the ability to take
protective action.
3. Life-threatening health effects.
http://orise.orau.gov/emi/scapa/chem-pacs-teels/default.htm
PAC: Protective Action Criteria for Chemicals
(Chem PAC: Protective Action Criteria for Chemicals)
DOE policy for its facilities and activities
established irreversible health effects
(the “-2” level) as the protective action
criterion benchmark for chemical
releases.
http://orise.orau.gov/emi/scapa/chem-pacs-teels/default.htm
http://www.atlintl.com/DOE/teels/teel.html
HAZMAT
ABIQUIM
http://www.abiquim.org.br/geral.asp?princ=pub&pag=/publicacoes_migra/info&str_ID=33
HAZMAT
DOE HANDBOOK
http://www.hss.doe.gov/nuclearsafety/techstds/docs/handbook/DOE-HDBK-1046-2008.pdf
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Toxicologia para emergências