BUILDING BRAZILIAN
BIOENERGY POLICY AT THE
AGRO-ENVIRONMENTAL
NEXUS:
A CASE STUDY OF THE GREEN
ETHANOL PROJECT
Rayane Aguiar
Research Associate
EBI Biofuels Law and Regulation Project:
Systems Sustainability
Law & Regulation Conference, April 19, 2013
Presentation Roadmap
1. Why the sustainability conversation in
Brazil?
• Policies that have fostered the
bioenergy sector
• Accompanying sustainability concerns
2. Case study: SP's Green Ethanol Project
3. Concluding Thoughts
Why Focus on São Paulo?
•
54% of Brazil’s sugarcane = 304 million tons
•
51% of Brazil’s ethanol = 11.6 billion L
•
SP: around 190 usinas
•
•
Brazil: more than 440 usinas
SP: 5.2 million ha
•
BR: 9.6 million ha
•
Most advanced regulation and policies
•
R & D concentration
Source: UNICA and UDOP (2011/2012 harvest season)
The Brazilian Regions and States
Sustainability Conversation Drivers:
• National Drivers:
1. Pro-álcool
2. Ethanol Blending Mandate: 20-25%
3. Flex Fuel Cars
4. Brazilian Renewable Energy Policies
•
PROINFA – Biomass to electricity
•
Biodiesel: PNBP
•
5% blending mandate
•
2.4 billion L
Sustainability Conversation Drivers:
• International Drivers:
1. The European Renewable Energy
Directive
2. California's LCFS
• Both recognize Brazilian sugarcane
ethanol
as an important player in
achieving U.S. and EU targets in
reducing GHG emissions
• Sustainability concerns  certification
Sustainability Concerns
• Land conversion for sugarcane expansion
• Impacts on GHG emissions, biodiversity
• Water quality and quantity
• Air emissions (e.g., burning)
• Soil degradation: erosion and quality
• Waste management
• Social concerns
• Labor conditions and employment
• Community benefits
The Emergence of Standards
• International and national standards
• Brazil-based
1. BONSUCRO:
• EU-RED qualified
• Currently certifies over 1 bil. L
• 26 companies in Brazil
2. SP Green Ethanol Project
• 159 usinas participating
• 27 farmer associations
São Paulo's
"Etanol Verde"
Program
São Paulo's Etanol Verde Program
•
•
•
2007: Agreement SMA-SP, SAA-SP, industry and
associations
Main goals:
• Address land conversion
• Protect/restore riparian areas and headwater
areas
• Eliminate sugarcane burning
• Soil management
• Water quality and quantity
• Reducing GHG emissions
• Ag residues & usina by-product management
Less complex/ less expensive/ high rate
participation
Etanol Verde Program Implementation
•
Certification process:
•
Strategic Plan
•
•
Details, goals and deadlines
•
Committee: SMA, SAA and UNICA
•
Reviewed annually (renew or cancel)
All the information provided can help
authorities to better shape future policy
strategies (adaptive management)
•
•
Etanol Verde Program Provision 1:
Land Conversion
Brazilian Environmental Policy
• Requires permitting of ethanol
Agro-environmental zoning: SMA-SP & SAA-SP
• Soil,
climate,
water
quant/qual,
conservation units, ecological corridors,
native vegetation
• Categories:
• Suitable
• Suitable with environmental limitations
• Suitable with environmental conditions
• Unsuitable(slopey and remains of
Atlantic Tropical Forest)
SP Sugar Cane Zoning
Etanol Verde Program Provision 1:
Land Conversion
• According to the Agro-environmental
Zoning Plan:
• 1%: unsuitable areas: no-go areas
• 45%: suitable w/ environmental limitation
• 28%: suitable w/ environmental
constraints
• 26%: suitable areas
• SC expansion on suitable areas has to
follow certain conditions: SMA Res. 88/2008
Etanol Verde Program Provision 2:
Riparian and Headwaters Areas Protection
• Brazilian Forest Code leading policy
• Preserve the environment and protect
biodiversity
• APP: permanent protection areas
• Riparian area restoration plan: voluntary
• Restore vegetation of headwaters areas:
50m perimeter  10% per year
Etanol Verde Program Provision 3:
Burning Prohibitions and Mechanization
Law
11,241/2002
AgroUntil 2013
environmental 2.7 mil tons CO2eq
Protocol
emissions
2021
mechanized
2014
mechanized
4.5 million ha
mechanized
2031 nonmechanized
(slopey)
2017 nonmechanized
(slopey)
1.67 million ha
burning
• No burning on areas of SC expansion
• CETESB role
Municipalities versus protocol deadlines
•
Class Actions:
•
•
State public prosecutors
•
Requiring immediate stop
•
State Court decisions
Federal public prosecutors
•
Analyses of feasibility
•
Requiring EIA/RIMA: CETESB
•
Federal Court decisions
Mechanization Issues
• Sugar cane yield losses
• Cost increase:
• Logistics
Mechanization Issues
• Technology - small farmers?
• Job displacement
• Soil degradation
• Lack of extension programs for
technology transfer
• Pest control problems
Etanol Verde Program Provision 4:
Soil Quality and Erosion
•
Soil conservation plan containing:
•
Soil erosion control practices
•
Crop rotation
•
Incorporation of residues (palha)
•
•
Sugar cane leaves (palha): 15 ton/ha
Return sand back to soil after SC
harvesting (3% of total harvested
material)
Etanol Verde Program Provision 5:
Water Quality and Quantity
•
Water Sources Conservation Plan
(annual)
• Usinas have primary responsibility
• Plan must address quantity and quality
• Reduce consumption (1m3/ton of SC)
• Reutilization & closed cycle
Etanol Verde Program Provision 6:
Industry By-Products Management
Etanol Verde Program Provision 6:
Industry By-Products Management
•
•
•
Bagasse
 electricity
Juicing process filter material and boiler ash
 fertilizer
Vinhaça  Fertirrigation
• Vinhaça Use control Plan: annual
• Vinhaça & soil nutrient measurement
• Protect surface and ground water
Concluding Thoughts
• Brazilian ethanol industry has shown great
improvements in sustainability
• Due both to market imposition and more
stringent regulatory and enforcement
systems, particularly for usinas
• BUT, “sustainability” practices have
negatively affected small scale producers
and caused land and market concentration
• Policies and extension programs targeting
sugar-cane small scale farmers are lacking
• Public and private investments in RD are key
to developing tools that improve
sustainability within the production chain
Thank you!
[email protected]
Rayane Aguiar
Research Associate, The Energy Biosciences Institute
ZAE-CANA: 64.7 million ha  53% pasture lands
Cattle stocking rate = 1.1 head per ha (Censo IBGE,
2006)
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