• ca. 50% of coastal LMs suitable for annual cropping
(land slope <12%) vs <15% of inland LMs
• Maphumulo/Ndwedwe characterised by slopes >40%
• Land capability: relatively low
– No high potential agricultural land in any LM
– Kwadukuza & Mandeni: Mostly lower grade arable land (>60%) and
grazing land
– Ndwedwe: only 39% arable land, remainder is mostly grazing land
– Maphumulo: only 24% arable land, remainder is grazing and nonarable/grazing land due to steep slopes and erodible soils
• Agricultural Potential (AP): (productivity per unit area and unit time)
– Land potential determined by land capability & climate limitations
• AP cont.:
– KwaDukuza & Mandeni: more uniform in AP; have generally
high AP due to arable soils and almost no climate limitation
– Ndwedwe: varied AP; some high potential areas, others with
severe soil and climate limitations
– Maphumulo: lowest AP; some isolated areas of high AP; 50% of land
is only suited to grazing; 11% unsuitable for agriculture; severe soil and
climate limitations
• Agricultural activities to reflect positive and negative effects of
climate change
– Increased pressure on irrigation schemes ito water availability and
increased evaporation rates
Summary of Core Issues
• Loss of biodiversity and habitat transformation in the wake of development
and service delivery thrusts, particularly in KwaDukuza LM
• Destruction and pollution of wetlands and riparian environments
• High potential agricultural land located in coastal corridor earmarked for
urban development
• Coastal ribbon development degrading natural features and are at risk to
dynamic coastal processes
• Poor compliance and enforcement capacity for mining operations
• Over-reliance on N2 for sub-regional connectivity
• Lack of integration between rural hinterland and coastal corridor, and lack
of proper planning in rural areas
• Poor service delivery to rural LMs has multiple environmental implications
(air quality, waste management, biodiversity)
• Formal economic activity, and thus migration, concentrated in KwaDukuza
& Mandeni LMs
• High levels of poverty and unemployment in rural areas
Summary of Key Potential Conflicts
Biodiversity conservation & agricultural and urban development
Agriculture & development potential
Traditional land ownership & development potential
Current socio-economic state and waste management & biodiversity
Coastal/Estuarine management & development potential
Coastal/Estuarine management & agriculture
Waste management (new landfills needed) & development potential

Ilembe EMF PSC 2_additional slides