Mass Rearing of the biological control
Agent Zygogramma bicolorata
Experienceses & Lessons Learnt
Mass rearing Cont`d
• The agent was kept at Ambo quarantine
facility after being Introduced from South
Africa in October 12, 2007.
• After conducting host range test,
environmental impact assessment document
was prepared & sent to MoA
• Approval from MoA obtained on June, 2012
• Visit by representatives from MoA, EPA & IBC
took place in October 02, 2013
Mass rearing Cont`d
• Preparation for multiplication
– Multiplication site is located within a farmers` association compound in
Wollinchitti town, about 125 km east of Addis Ababa
Original Site
After clearing
– It is 46 x 16.5meters
– Was enough to erect 5 breeding cages & a Nursery and a water tanker
Mass rearing Cont`d
• Mesh net and pots arrived at Wollinchitti on
December 25, 2012
• Purchase of farm tools including two water
tankers completed at end of January, 2013
• Installation of water pipe in early February,
Mass rearing Cont`d
• Because of shortage of water from the source
we were getting very little water
• Got connected to a reliable water system, that
supplies water to the rural community of the
Woreda, on February 13, 2014
Mass rearing Cont`d
Erection of Breeding cages & a Nurserycompleted end of January 2013
Nursery & Breeding cages
3000 lts. Water Tanker
Mass rearing Cont`d
Whole area fenced with
barbed wire with 15 cm
Main Entrance Door
With lock
Gravel on surface inside
& outside cages
Second Door
Mass rearing Cont`d
Water Tanker
3000 and 5000 lts. capacity
Toilet & hand wash
Mass rearing Cont`d
Dealing with high temperature
Nursery 5 x 10m
Shading of breeding cages
Mass rearing Cont`d
• Multiplication of Zygogramma in 2013
– Started with a batch of 60 pairs of Zygo. that was
brought from Ambo on June 25, 2013
Mass rearing Cont`d
Adults started laying eggs and some eggs have started hatching when flooding
hit the area on July 02, 2013
Mass rearing Cont`d
Potted plant approach
Egg laying, Larval Development & Adult Emergence set up
Cage 1 Egg laying
12 vigorous parthenium plants in pots
50 pairs of Adults released & kept for 3 days
Mass rearing Cont`d
CAGE 2 Larval Development
Larva are left to feed by changing plants as
Remove smaller size larva & place on new plant
Place soil/sand mixture at bottom of old pot
Leave old pot until most larva enter soil
Cut back the plant & place in adult emergence
Mass rearing Cont`d
Cage 3 Adult Emergence
• Pots are kept wet
• Pots checked for adults twice a day a
week after being placed in cage
• Adults are taken back to cage 1 to
start the process all over again
Mass rearing Cont`d
Surface planted approach
Mass rearing Cont`d
• In 2014 we used the two approaches side by side
• Plan was to produce 4000 adults in one of the
cages and distribute these in the four cages to
eventually produce 40000 adults by mid July
• But most of the initial Zygogramma culture were
destroyed by Lizards
Lizards` hiding cracks
Remains of Zygogramma
After Lizard attack
Mass rearing Cont`d
• Rearing continued with remaining adults
• Within one cage (Cage 4) on benches
300 egg laying adults, placed in a small cage containing four plants in pots for one day,
produced on the average 425 eggs
Adults remain on plants all the time thereby producing more eggs
larva are removed and transferred in two other cages and others were left on plants to
pupate in pots
Mass rearing Cont`d
• Second Approach releasing adults on plants grown on surface
of Breeding cages (cages 1 and 4)
3 plots each about 1m wide, rows 20-25cm spacing
Woreda involvement & awareness creation
• Involvement of Woreda
Agriculture office
• Awareness creation
• Water problem before February 13, 2014
Pipe installed but
very little water
Transport water using Horse
cart & pick up vehicle
• Weather condition
On human beings
On growth & development of parthenium
Aphid infestation
Under side
Mealy bug Infestation
Upper side
Young Shoots
Large size Ants
Immediately after
Larva being attacked ant
Lizards & Rats
Remains of adults after
Lizard attack
Some observations
Green looper feeding on Parthenium
Dorsal view of Adult
Side view of Adult
Some observations
Some kind of larval parasite
Parasitized Larva?
Diseased Larva
Mating Adults
Some observations
• Aphids and its parasites
Some observations
Extra seedlings from surface grown
plants can be transplanted
And used in pot rearing
Make use of parthenium seedlings
Around rearing site
Some observations
• Chicken as predators of Mealybugs
Mass rearing cont`d….
• Comments, suggestions & lessons learnt
– Collect enough seeds at the right time
– Site should be built away from any source of
– Don`t ever start rearing without reliable water
– Be present as frequently as possible & make
observations all the time
– Take care of pests particularly Aphids and Mealy
Mass rearing cont`d….
• Use benches for rearing in pots
• Make sure you have enough supply of
parthenium seedlings
• Use combination of the two approaches
• Use wood Ash against ants
• Need for some Entomological tools
– Insect rearing cages, preservatives, pins etc.
Mass rearing of Zygogramma

Mass Rearing of the biological control Agent Zygogramma