A high resolution emission inventory of
particulate EC and OC for Europe
Hugo Denier van der Gon, Antoon Visschedijk, Rianne Dröge, Maarten Mulder,
Jeroen Kuenen (TNO)
Christer Johansson (Stockholm University)
Zbigniew Klimont (IIASA)
Why?
Climate relevant
Health relevant
Carbonaceous aerosols important fraction of PM10
Not available for a recent base year
Not available on a desired (high) resolution
What about coarse EC and OC?
Still mismatch between modelled – measured = not properly
understood….
Menu – Just to get the flavour…
Quick guide through methodology
Results – aggregated
Country differences
Fraction Organic Matter in PM2.5
Spatial distribution
Wood combustion adjustments
Maps!
Conclusions
BC, EC, OC, what is what?
Black carbon (BC) and elemental carbon (EC) are operationally
defined by measurement method
BC = optical term (highly light-absorbing carbon)
EC = chemical term (refractory carbon measured by thermal/optical
carbon analyzers
BC and (submicron) EC represent often roughly the same particles
OC = non-carbonate carbonaceous particles other than EC
TC = EC + OC (C-mass basis)
OM = EC + OC (full molecular mass basis)
METHODOLOGY (SHORT VERSION)
Start from IIASA’s GAINS PM10/2.5/1 emission inventory
Deriving representative size-differentiated EC and OC fractions for over
200 source categories using e.g., Kupiainen et al. 2004, Bond et al. 2004; Streets et
al. 2001, Schauer et al. 2006 and more….
EC and OC calculated as a share of PM10/PM2.5/PM1 emissions.
Constrains EC / OC and
[size-fractionated EC and OC emission factors for all relevant sources /
technologies are not available & and/or can vary widely due to different
measurement protocols and analytical techniques]
Use new TNO spatial distribution proxy maps
Study area: well beyond EU boundaries
SNAP1
EC_1
EC_1-2.5
EC_2.5-10
OC_2.5
OC_2.5-10
Anthropogenic
primary
Carbonaceous
emissions
1
2
18
29
11
3
50
395
4
in2 Europe 2005143(kt C) 43
3
2
4
5
9
1
4
32
4
19
81
29
5
1
3
55
1
6
6
0
0
0
0
0
7
184
17
8
104
25
8
90
5
5
71
0
9
35
2
2
63
0
10
35
1
2
112
145
Total Land based
525
96
176
847
214
International
shipping
79
45
7
84
0
Europe
604
140
183
931
214
TC_PM10
63
635
21
165
67
0
338
172
102
295
1858
215
2073
450000
400000
350000
OC in PM2.5, 2005 (850 kt)
EC 2005 (525 kt)
300000
250000
200000
150000
100000
50000
0
Combustion in Non-industrial Combustion in
energy
combustion manufacturing
industries
plants
industry
1
2
3
Production
processes
4
Extraction and
distribution
fossil fuels
5
Solvent use
6
Road
transport
7
Other mobile
Waste
sources and treatment and
machinery
disposal
8
9
Agriculture
10
Tr
uc
La
ca
ks
nd
rs
-b
an
,d
as
Tr
d
ie
ed
ad
bu
se
iti
s
l
o
se
on
ffs
r
al
oa
,d
wo
d
ie
m
se
od
o
l
bi
st
le
ov
,
es
di
es
an
el
d
fir
ep
la
ce
Fa
s
rm
W
an
at
im
er
al
w
s
ay
s,
di
es
el
In
du
st
M
ry
ea
tr
oa
To
st
b
Ho
in
ac
g
co
us
eh
sm
ol
ok
d
in
w
g
as
te
bu
rn
La
in
nd
Co
g
-b
a
as
ls
W
ed
to
oo
ve
dof
s
fir
f-r
ed
oa
d
bo
m
ile
ob
rs
ile
,g
as
ol
O
in
th
e
er
so
ur
ce
s
en
ge
r
Pa
ss
Emission (tonnes C)
Netherlands
4000
3000
Organic carbon < 2.5 µm
Elemental carbon 1 - 2.5 µm
Elemental carbon < 1 µm
2000
1000
0
st
ov
es
Tr
uc
ks
on
al
wo
od
an
d
an
d
fir
ep
la
ce
bu
s
ss
es
,d
ie
se
l
I
W
nd
oo
us
dtry
fir
ed
bo
ile
rs
La
Co
nd
a
ls
-b
as
to
ve
ed
M
s
ea
of
tr
f-r
oa
oa
st
d
in
m
g
ob
ile
,d
ie
se
Fa
Pa
l
rm
ss
an
en
im
ge
al
rc
s
ar
s,
To
di
es
ba
La
el
cc
nd
o
-b
sm
as
W
ed
at
ok
er
in
of
w
g
f-r
a
ys
oa
,d
d
m
ie
se
ob
l
ile
,g
as
ol
O
in
th
e
er
so
ur
ce
s
Tr
ad
iti
Emission (tonnes C)
Turkey
40000
30000
Organic carbon < 2.5 µm
Elemental carbon 1 - 2.5 µm
20000
Elemental carbon < 1 µm
10000
0
on
al
wo
od
st
ov
es
an
d
Tr
uc
k
fir
ep
la
ce
Co
s
s
an
a
ls
La
d
to
bu
nd
ve
ss
-b
s
as
es
W
oo
ed
,d
die
of
se
fir
f-r
e
l
oa
d
bo
d
m
ile
ob
rs
ile
,d
Pa
ie
se
ss
l
en
In
ge
du
rc
st
ry
ar
s,
di
Fa
es
el
r
m
La
a
nd
Ho
ni
-b
M
m
us
as
e
al
at
eh
s
ed
r
o
oa
ld
of
st
f-r
w
in
as
oa
g
te
d
Ag
m
bu
ob
ri c
rn
ile
in
ul
g
tu
,g
ra
a
so
lw
lin
as
e
te
To
bu
ba
rn
cc
in
o
g
W
s
at
m
er
ok
w
in
ay
g
s,
di
O
es
th
el
er
so
ur
ce
s
Tr
ad
iti
Emission (tonnes C)
Poland
30000
20000
Organic carbon < 2.5 µm
Elemental carbon 1 - 2.5 µm
Elemental carbon < 1 µm
10000
0
Emission of OM vs PM2.5 for Europe in 2005 by source sector
Difference is due to mineral component (ashes)
1400000
1200000
1000000
PM2.5 (3400 kt)
Total organic matter (OM) in PM2.5 (1700 kt)
Difference is due to “product” aerosols (e.g. fertilizer, iron, etc.)
800000
600000
400000
200000
0
Combustion in Non-industrial Combustion in
energy
combustion manufacturing
industries
plants
industry
1
2
3
Production
processes
4
Extraction and
distribution
fossil fuels
5
Solvent use
6
Road transport Other mobile
Waste
7
sources and treatment and
machinery
disposal
8
9
Agriculture
10
Results: Carbonaceous aerosol < 10 μm (as TC) by
compound and size class
OC_2.5-10
12%
EC_1
28%
OC_2.5
46%
EC_1-2.5
5%
EC_2.5-10
9%
Sure, smaller particles are much more relevant for health / climate / transport
But…coarser EC and OC is not negligible
Sources coarse EC (“char”) : domestic combustion and utility combustion of coal, the
storage & handling of coal and coal products, combustion of HFO,
coarse OC from animal husbandry
Updated and improved spatial distribution maps for emission sources (e.g., point
sources, road transport, wood combustion)
Road map for Europe based on EU Transtools project
to be used for non-urban traffic
Focus on wood combustion
 Domestic use of fuel wood is an extremely important source
 Wood is a non-commercial fuel - falls outside administration
 Wood consumption in the past often underestimated
 Activity data: In Europe 3 sources (Eurostat, IEA, RAINS/GAINS)
 Grouped in 5 socio-economic/regional clusters (cluster averages 1.6 – 8.6
MJ/inhabitant) with Scandinavia and Baltic > Continental Europe >
Mediterranean > Former Soviet Union > North Sea
 Technologies following RAINS (IIASA)
 Gapfilled missing countries, or unrealistic values
 Compared to the raw GAINS activity data the reported domestic fuel wood
usage per appliance is modified for 18 countries.
 Distribution:
 Urban vs rural population based on data from SWE, NL, DEU
 Wood availability (forest in the vicinity)
Note: Transport dominates
Note: coal combustion, shipping (HFO gives rel. large particles), some diesel
Note: coal combustion, coke ovens & storage and handling of coal
Note: wood combustion & transport
Note: agriculture contribution
Conclusions
A European EC and OC emission inventory is compiled for the year
2005 that is consistent with particulate matter inventories.
Total PM2.5 for UNECE Europe (excl. shipping) = 3400 kt and about
half of this is carbonaceous aerosol (organic matter).
EC emission < 1 um = 525 kt, OC in PM2.5 is estimated to be and
847 kt, International shipping adds 79 kt EC and 84 kt OC.
Coarse EC and OC is not negligible in terms of PM10 fraction
Conclusions (2)
Diesel use in transport and fuel wood by households are responsible
for 70% EC_1 and 56% of OC in PM2.5.
A significant adjustment has been made for the emissions and
distribution from residential wood combustion.
The high resolution inventory of EC and OC is “passed on” to
Modelers within the EUCAARI project…..The feedback should help in
further improvements
Fire emissions for 2005 should be added…..
TNO – SU – IIASA
Thank you for your attention

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work has been partly funded by EUCAARI
(European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air
Quality interactions) No 036833-2.
European workshop:
“The policy relevance of wear emissions from road
transport, now and in the future”
will take place on June 22nd in Amsterdam
for more information contact:
[email protected]
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A European-wide inventory of EC and OC