Teachers Talk, Students Talk Educational Psychology Produced by: Maisara Mohd Mahadi Lim Pei Gen Nithya Manbir Kaur Too much learning from textbook Sees no relevance in learning a certain subject Sees teachers as the only source of motivation Difficulty storing information in memory Struggling to understand Math concepts Teachers assessment only at the end of lesson I’m having a hard time remembering Science concepts I’m 12 years old and am going to take PSLE this year My classmates have better teachers and I am not happy! My teacher is boring My teacher asks to memorize facts from textbooks I love looking at charts and graphs I want Science experiments and watch videos Different Styles of Learning Fleming and Mills’ (1992) VARK Model of Learning V: Visual – Prefer maps, flow charts, graphs, etc A: Auditory/ Aural – Prefer information that is “heard/ spoken” R: Read/ Write – Prefer information in words K: Kinesthetic – Prefer hands-on experience (connected to reality) Learners construct knowledge in the process of developing an understanding of their experiences, rather than recording information in their memories in the exact form in which it is presented. Thus it is important to identify students’ learning style. Beng Kwee’s Learning Profile Beng Kwee is a visual and kinesthetic learner. He learns best at finding practical uses for Science concepts and theories. He prefers practical applications and “hands-on” activities as opposed to simply listen, observe and learn. Issue #1 Mr Lim gives too much information from the textbook through verbal explanations and the lessons lack hands-on interaction Solution #1 Cognitive Learning Theories Use Science 3-D models, science experiments, interactive websites, flow charts and illustrative powerpoints Will impact visual and kinesthetic learners like Beng Kwee Attention is where learning begins Mr. Lim should find ways to attract and retain his attention by using flow-charts, attractive illustrations and 3-D models as effective attention-getters Social Constructivist Theories Emphasizes the importance of connecting topics to realworld context Authentic activities Learning is more meaningful Beng Kwee will better understand how elements, compounds and mixtures work in real-life context Social Cognitive Theories Albert Bandura People learn by observing others (McLeod, 2011) Mr. Lim should model genuine interest in teaching Science Issue #2 Beng Kwee does not see the utility value in learning Science concepts Solution #2 Piaget’s Theory Piaget: Design learning experiences as developmental bridges to more advance stages of development. Engaging prior knowledge Get his students to write down what they know about a topic (K), what they would like to find out (W) and at the end of lesson what they have learned (L). Piaget’s Theory Piaget: Provide concrete experiences and help students link the concrete representation to abstract idea Mr Lim should have let the students do active exploration with materials – Science experiments, hands-on activities, visual aids Help Beng Kwee relate to real world context and see and relevance of learning “Mixtures & Compounds” Issue #3 Beng Kwee sees his teachers as the only extrinsic source of motivation. "If only they were my teachers, then maybe I will do better for my PSLE". Solution #3 Cognitive Evaluation Theory Mr Lim needs to sustain Beng Kwee’s motivation to learn Make students realise that teachers are not the only extrinsic source of motivation Reward system: Using rewards to communicate increased competence can increase Beng Kwee’s motivation to learn and beliefs about his capabilities. Issue #4 Beng Kwee has difficulty storing information. He "can’t answer his questions most of the time" and he "can’t remember what he said in the first place". Solution #4 Vygotsky’s Theory Language through questioning Social interaction: Collaborative work Information Processing Theory Model of STM Central Executive: controls the flow of information to and from the other components Phonological loop: short-term storage system for words and sounds and it retains information through maintenance rehearsal - the process of repeating information over and over, either out loud or silently, without altering its form (R. Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). Visual-sketchpad: short-term storage system for visual and spatial information Reduce limitations to STM Chunking: grouping information – Mr. Lim should group information Distributed Processing: 1) using the phonological loop: repetition and emphasis on key concepts 2) visual-sketchpad to reduce cognitive load - use interesting visuals like concept maps, organizational charts and illustrative powerpoints Long-Term Memory Declarative knowledge: Knowledge of facts, definitions, procedures and rules 1) Semantic memory: Memory for concepts, principles and the relationships among them 2) Episodic memory: Memory for personal experiences Procedural knowledge: Knowledge of how to perform tasks. Knowledge is about knowing “how”. Conditional knowledge: Knowledge of “where” and “when” to use declarative and procedural knowledge Phone call from Desmond Issue #5 Desmond is struggling to grasp Mathematical concepts as his Math teacher gives formulae and expects the students to solve Math problems. Solution #5 Vygotsky’s Theories Culture: illustrated by concrete examples, e.g. brochures and advertisements on electronic gadgets to teach percentage Peer interaction: group work – where less competent students get help from better ones Scaffolding: step-by-step guidance More Knowledgeable Other & Zone of Proximal Development Issue #6 The teacher only assesses Desmond and his classmates at the end of the lesson. Solution #6 Constructivist Learning Theory John Dewey Importance of questioning and feedback – two-way interaction Ask appropriate questions at different parts of the lesson: When the teacher asks Desmond at whichever point he thinks important, he will be able to check whether his understanding is incomplete or inaccurate. Then, he can provide feedback on Desmond's understand thus making his learning a more meaningful one. References Brophy, J. (2004). Motivating students to learn (2nd ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill Byrnes, J.P. (2001a). 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