Teachers Talk, Students Talk
Educational Psychology
Produced by:
Maisara Mohd Mahadi
Lim Pei Gen
Manbir Kaur
Too much learning from textbook
Sees no relevance in learning a certain subject
Sees teachers as the only source of motivation
Difficulty storing information in memory
Struggling to understand Math concepts
Teachers assessment only at the end of lesson
I’m having a hard time
remembering Science
I’m 12 years old
and am going to take
PSLE this year
My classmates have
better teachers and I am
not happy!
My teacher is boring
My teacher asks to memorize
facts from textbooks
I love looking at
charts and graphs
I want Science experiments
and watch videos
Different Styles of Learning
Fleming and Mills’ (1992) VARK Model of Learning
V: Visual – Prefer maps, flow charts, graphs, etc
A: Auditory/ Aural – Prefer information that is “heard/ spoken”
R: Read/ Write – Prefer information in words
K: Kinesthetic – Prefer hands-on experience (connected to reality)
Learners construct knowledge in the process of developing an
understanding of their experiences, rather than recording
information in their memories in the exact form in which it is
presented. Thus it is important to identify students’ learning
Beng Kwee’s Learning Profile
Beng Kwee is a visual and kinesthetic learner.
He learns best at finding practical uses for Science concepts
and theories.
He prefers practical applications and “hands-on” activities as
opposed to simply listen, observe and learn.
Issue #1
Mr Lim gives too much information from the textbook through verbal
explanations and the lessons lack hands-on interaction
Solution #1
Cognitive Learning Theories
Use Science 3-D models, science experiments, interactive
websites, flow charts and illustrative powerpoints
Will impact visual and kinesthetic learners like Beng Kwee
Attention is where learning begins
Mr. Lim should find ways to attract and retain his attention
by using flow-charts, attractive illustrations and 3-D models
as effective attention-getters
Social Constructivist Theories
Emphasizes the importance of connecting topics to realworld context
Authentic activities
Learning is more meaningful
Beng Kwee will better understand how elements, compounds
and mixtures work in real-life context
Social Cognitive Theories
Albert Bandura
People learn by observing others (McLeod, 2011)
Mr. Lim should model genuine interest in teaching Science
Issue #2
Beng Kwee does not see the utility value in learning Science concepts
Solution #2
Piaget’s Theory
Piaget: Design learning experiences as developmental bridges to
more advance stages of development.
Engaging prior knowledge
Get his students to write down what they know about a topic
(K), what they would like to find out (W) and at the end of
lesson what they have learned (L).
Piaget’s Theory
Piaget: Provide concrete experiences and help students
link the concrete representation to abstract idea
Mr Lim should have let the students do active
exploration with materials – Science experiments,
hands-on activities, visual aids
Help Beng Kwee relate to real world context and see
and relevance of learning “Mixtures & Compounds”
Issue #3
Beng Kwee sees his teachers as the only extrinsic source of motivation.
"If only they were my teachers, then maybe I will do better for my PSLE".
Solution #3
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
Mr Lim needs to sustain Beng Kwee’s motivation to learn
Make students realise that teachers are not the only extrinsic
source of motivation
Reward system: Using rewards to communicate increased
competence can increase Beng Kwee’s motivation to learn
and beliefs about his capabilities.
Issue #4
Beng Kwee has difficulty storing information. He "can’t answer his questions
most of the time" and he "can’t remember what he said in the first place".
Solution #4
Vygotsky’s Theory
Language through questioning
Social interaction: Collaborative work
Information Processing Theory
Model of STM
Central Executive: controls the flow of information to and
from the other components
Phonological loop: short-term storage system for words and
sounds and it retains information through maintenance
rehearsal - the process of repeating information over and
over, either out loud or silently, without altering its form (R.
Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968).
Visual-sketchpad: short-term storage system for visual and
spatial information
Reduce limitations to STM
Chunking: grouping information – Mr. Lim should group
Distributed Processing:
1) using the phonological loop: repetition and emphasis on
key concepts
2) visual-sketchpad to reduce cognitive load - use interesting
visuals like concept maps, organizational charts and
illustrative powerpoints
Long-Term Memory
Declarative knowledge: Knowledge of facts, definitions,
procedures and rules
1) Semantic memory: Memory for concepts, principles and
the relationships among them
2) Episodic memory: Memory for personal experiences
Procedural knowledge: Knowledge of how to perform tasks.
Knowledge is about knowing “how”.
Conditional knowledge: Knowledge of “where” and
“when” to use declarative and procedural knowledge
Phone call from Desmond
Issue #5
Desmond is struggling to grasp Mathematical concepts as his Math teacher
gives formulae and expects the students to solve Math problems.
Solution #5
Vygotsky’s Theories
Culture: illustrated by concrete examples, e.g. brochures and
advertisements on electronic gadgets to teach percentage
Peer interaction: group work – where less competent students
get help from better ones
Scaffolding: step-by-step guidance
More Knowledgeable Other & Zone of Proximal
Issue #6
The teacher only assesses Desmond and his classmates at the end of the
Solution #6
Constructivist Learning Theory
John Dewey
Importance of questioning and feedback – two-way
Ask appropriate questions at different parts of the lesson:
When the teacher asks Desmond at whichever point he
thinks important, he will be able to check whether his
understanding is incomplete or inaccurate. Then, he can
provide feedback on Desmond's understand thus making his
learning a more meaningful one.
Brophy, J. (2004). Motivating students to learn (2nd ed.). Boston:
Byrnes, J.P. (2001a). Cognitive development and learning in
instructional contexts (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Covington.M. (2000). Intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation in
schools: A reconciliation, Current Directions in Psychological
Science , 9, 22-25
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and selfdetermination in human behaviour. New York: Plenum.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal
pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior.
Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). Self-determination theory and the
facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being.
American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.
Deci, E. L. , Koestner, R. & Richard M. R. (2001). Extrinsic Rewards and
Intrinsic Motivation in Education: Reconsidered Once Again. Review of
Educational Research, 71. Retrieved from
Eggen, P., Kauchak, D. (2010). Eighth Edition Educational Psychology:
Windows on Classrooms. New Jersey, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Gehlbach, H., & Roseser, R. (2002). The middle way to motivating middle
school students: Avoiding false dichotomies. Middle School Journal , 33,39-46.
Glassman, M. (2001). Dewey and Vygotsky: Society, experience, and inquiry in
educational practice. Educational Researcher, 30(4), 3-14.
Glassman, M. & Wany, Y. (2004). On the interconnected nature of
interpreting Vygotsky: Rejoinder to Gredler and Shields Does no one
read Vygotsky’s words. Educational Researcher, 33(6), 19-22.
Gredler, M. & Shields, C. (2004). Does no one read Vygotsky’s words?
Commentary on Glassman. Educational Researcher, 33(2), 21-25.
Huitt, W. (2003). The information processing approach to
cognition. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta
State University. Retrieved on October, 13, 2011
from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cognition/infoproc.ht
Herrick, M. J. (1996). Assessment of Student Achievement And
Learning, What Would Dewey Say? A ’Recent’ Interview With John
Dewey. Journal of Vocational and Technical Education, 13 (1). Retrieved
from http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JVTE/v13n1/herrick.html
Lepper, M., & Henderlong, J. (2000). Turning “play” into work
and “work” into play. In C. Sansone & J. Harackiewicz (Eds.),
Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: The search for optimal
motivation and performance (pp.257-307). San Diego: Academic
McLeod, S. (2011). Bandura – Social Learning Theory. Retrieved
October, 18, 2011 from
Puntambekar, S., & Hubscher, R. (2005). Tools for scaffolding
students in a complex learning environment: What have we gained
and what have we missed? Educational Psychologist, 40(1), 1-12.
Rogoff, B. (2003). The cultural context of human development.
Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher
psychological processes (M.Cole, V. John Stener,S.Scribner, & E.
Souberman, Eds. & Trans.). Cambridge, MA: Havard University
Vygotsky, L. (1986). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT
Winsler, A. & Naglieri, J. (2003). Overt and covert verbal problemsolving strategies: Developmental trends in use, awareness, and
relations with task performance in children aged 5 to 17. Child
Development, 74, 659-678
Wood, D., Bruner, J., & Ross, S. (1976). The role tutoring in
problem solving. British Journal of Psychology, 66, 181-196.

Educational Psychology - Teachers Talk, Students Talk