WEEK 3:
EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION
BUSN 102 – Özge Can
What Motivates Employees to Peak
Performance?
10-2

Motivation
 The
combination of forces that move individuals
to take certain actions and avoid other actions

Engagement
 An
employee’s rational and emotional
commitment to his or her work
Four Indicators of Motivation
10-3

Employees can be said to be fully motivated when
they are engaged, satisfied, committed and rooted.
Four Fundamental Needs
10-4
Motivation comes from the following basic needs:
 The drive to acquire
 The drive to bond
 The drive to comprehend
 The drive to defend
Classical Theories of Motivation:
10-5

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
Taylor’s scientific management
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Theory X, theory Y and theory Z
Herzberg’s two factors
McClelland’s three needs
Taylor’s Scientific Management
10-6

Scientific Management
A
management approach designed to improve
employees’ efficiency by scientifically studying
their work
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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
10-7

Maslow’s Hierarchy
A
model in which human needs are arranged in
according to their priority, with the most basic
needs at the bottom and the more advanced
needs toward the top
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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
10-8
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Theory X and Theory Y
10-9

Theory X
A
managerial assumption that employees are
irresponsible, are unambitious, and dislike work
and that managers must use force, control, or
threats to motivate them
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Theory X and Theory Y
10-10

Theory Y
A
managerial assumption that employees enjoy
meaningful work, are naturally committed to
certain goals, are capable of creativity, and seek
out responsibility under the right conditions
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Herzberg’s Two Factors
10-11

Herzberg’s two-factor theory
A
model that divides motivational forces into
satisfiers (“motivators”) and dissatisfiers (“hygiene
factors”)
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
10-12
McClelland’s Three Needs
10-13

Three-needs Theory
 David
McClelland’s model of motivation that
highlights the needs for power, affiliation, and
achievement
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Contemporary Theories of Motivation:
10-14



Expectancy theory
Equity theory
Goal-setting theory
Explaining Employee Choices
10-15

Expectancy Theory
 The
idea that the effort employees put into their
work depends on expectations about their own
ability to perform, expectations about likely
rewards, and the attractiveness of those rewards
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Expectancy Theory
10-16
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Explaining Employee Choices
10-17

Equity Theory
 The
idea that employees base their level of
satisfaction on the ratio of their inputs to the job
and the outputs or rewards they receive from it
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Motivating with Challenging Goals
10-18

Goal-setting Theory
A
motivational theory suggesting that setting
goals can be an effective way to motivate
employees
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Motivating with Challenging Goals
10-19

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Goals should be specific enough to give
employees clarity and focus
Goals should be difficult enough to inspire
energetic and committed effort
There should be clear “ownership” of goals so
that accountability can be established
Individuals’ should have belief in their ability to
meet their goals
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Management by Objectives
10-20

Management By Objectives (MBO)
A
motivational approach in which managers and
employees work together to structure personal
goals and objectives for every individual,
department, and project to mesh with the
organization’s goals
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Management by Objectives
10-21
Risks and Limitations of
Goal-Setting Theory:
10-22







Overly narrow goals
Overly challenging goals
Inappropriate time horizons
Unintentional performance limitations
Missed learning opportunities
Unhealthy internal competition
Decreased intrinsic motivation
10-23
Redesigning Jobs to Stimulate
Performance

Job characteristics model
A
model suggesting that five core job dimensions
influence three critical psychological states that
determine motivation, performance, and other
outcomes
Job Characteristics Model:
10-24
Skill
variety
Feedback
Autonomy
Task
identity
Task
significanc
e
Critical Psychological States:
10-25

Experienced meaningfulness of the work
a
measure of how much employees care about
the jobs they are doing

Experienced responsibility for results
 the
sense each employee has that his or her
efforts contribute to the outcome

Knowledge of actual results
 employees’
their efforts
awareness of the real-life results of
Approaches to Modifying Core Job
Dimensions:
10-26

Job Enrichment
 Making
jobs more challenging and interesting by
expanding the range of skills required

Job Enlargement
 It
is a horizontal expansion of a job, adding tasks
that aren’t necessarily any more challenging. It
simply gives workers more to do

Cross-Training
 Training
workers to perform multiple jobs and
rotating them through these various jobs to
combat boredom or burnout
10-27
Reinforcing High-Performance
Behavior

Reinforcement Theory
A
motivational approach based on the idea that
managers can motivate employees by influencing
their behaviors with positive and negative
reinforcement
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Types of Reinforcement
10-28

Positive
Reinforcement
 Encouraging
desired
behaviors by
offering pleasant
consequences for
completing or
repeating those
behaviors

Negative
Reinforcement
 Encouraging
the
repetition of a
particular behavior
(desirable or not) by
removing
unpleasant
consequences for
the behavior
Reinforcement and Punishment
10-29
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Motivational Strategies
10-30


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Providing timely and frequent feedback
Personalizing motivational efforts
Adapting to circumstances and special needs
Tackling workplace problems before they have a
chance to destroy morale
Being inspirational leaders
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Personalizing Motivation
10-31
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