Leadership is the capacity to translate vision
into reality
Warren Bennis
What Is Leadership?
Leadership
The ability to influence a
group toward the
achievement of goals.
Management
Use of authority inherent
in designated formal rank
to obtain compliance from
organizational members.
Trait Theories
Traits Theories of Leadership
Leadership Traits:
Theories that consider
personal qualities &
characteristics that ,
differentiate leaders from
nonleaders.
• Ambition and energy
The search for personality,
social, physical or intellectual
attributes that describe leaders
from non leaders.
• Intelligence
• The desire to lead
• Honest and integrity
• Self-confidence
• High self-monitoring
• Job-relevant
knowledge
Trait Theories
Assumptions
People are born with inherited traits.
Some traits are particularly suited to leadership.
People who make good leaders have the right (or sufficient) combination of
traits.
Limitations:
• No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations.
• Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing
effective and ineffective leaders.
For a long period, inherited traits were sidelined as learned and situational factors
were considered to be far more realistic as reasons for people acquiring leadership
positions.
Behavioral Theories
Behavioral Theories of Leadership
Theories proposing that specific behaviors
differentiate leaders from nonleaders.
• Trait theory:
Leaders are born, not made.
• Behavioral theory:
Leadership traits can be taught.
Ohio State Studies 1940s
• Researchers sought to identify 1000 dimensions of
leader behaviour which they narrowed down the
list to two categories
• They called the dimensions as initiating structure
and consideration
• Initiating structure – the extent to which the a
leader is likely to define and structure his or her role
and those of subordinates in the search for goal
attainment.
• Consideration – the extent to which a person is
likely to have job relationships that are
characterized by mutual trust, respect for
employees as equals.
University of Michigan Studies
Employee-Oriented Leader
Emphasizing interpersonal relations
Taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual
differences among members.
The research strongly favoured leaders who were employee oriented in their
behaviour.
Therefore higher productivity and higher job satisfaction
Production-Oriented Leader
One who emphasizes technical or task
aspects of the job.
Low productivity and lower job satisfaction
The Managerial
Grid
(Blake and
Mouton)
E X H I B I T 11–1
The Managerial Grid
High 9
Concern for people
8
9,9
Team management
Work accomplishment is from
committed people, interdependence
through a “common stake” in organization
purpose leads to relationship
of trust and respect
1,9
Country club management
Thoughtful attention needs of people
for satisfying relationships leads to
A comfortable, friendly organization
atmosphere and work tempo
7
6
5
4
3
2
Low
1
5,5
Organization Man Management
Adequate organization performance
possible through balancing the necessity to
get out work with maintaining
morale of the people at a satisfactory level
9,1
1,1
Authority-Obedience
Impoverished Management
Efficiency
in operations results
Exertion of minimum effort to get
from arranging conditions of
required work done is appropriate
work in such a way that human
to sustain organization membership
elements interfere to a minimal degree
1
Low
2
3
4
5
6
Concern for production
7
8
9
High
Scandinavian Studies
• Researchers in Finland and Sweden began
reassessing whether there are only two dimensions
that capture the essence of leadership behaviour.
• Their basic premise is that in a changing world
effective leaders would exhibit development oriented
behaviour
• Considering the earlier approaches these
researchers felt that this dimension existed and is
necessary in 21 st century.
Contingency Theories
Fiedler’s Contingency Model
The theory that effective groups depend on a proper match
between a leader’s style of interacting with subordinates and the
degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the
leader.
Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC)
Questionnaire
An instrument that purports to measure whether a
person is task- or relationship-oriented.
Fiedler’s Model: Defining the Situation
Leader-Member Relations
The degree of confidence, trust, and respect
subordinates have in their leader.
Task Structure
The degree to which the job assignments are
procedurized.
Position Power
Influence derived from one’s formal structural
position in the organization; includes power to hire,
fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increases.
Findings from
Fiedler Model
E X H I B I T 11–2
Message By
Jack Francis Welch
“If you pick the right people and give them
the opportunity to spread their wings and
put compensation as a career behind it
almost don’t have to manage it”
“If you don’t have competitive advantage,
don’t compete”
“Control your own destiny or someone else
will”
Difference between leaders & Managers
Leaders
Managers
Innovate
Administer
Develop
Maintain
Inspire
Control
Long Term View
Short term view
Ask what and why
Ask, how and when
Originate
Initiate
Challenge the status
quo
Accept the status quo
Do the right things
Do Things right
Different Styles of Leadership
• Autocratic leadership
• Bureaucratic leadership
• Charismatic leadership
• Democratic leadership or Participative
leadership
• Laissez-faire leadership
• People-oriented leadership or RelationsOriented leadership
• Servant leadership
• Task-oriented leadership
• Transactional leadership
• Transformational leadership
Charismatic Leadership
Key Characteristics of Charismatic leaders
1.
Self Confidence- They have complete confidence in their judgment and ability.
2.
A vision- This is an idealized goal that proposes a future better than the status quo. The greater the disparity
between idealized goal and the status quo, the more likely that followers will attribute extraordinary vision to the
leader.
3.
Ability to articulate the vision- They are able to clarify and state the vision in terms that are understandable
to others. This articulation demonstrates an understanding of the followers’ needs and, hence acts as a
motivating force.
4.
Strong convictions about vision- Charismatic leaders are perceived as being strongly committed, and willing
to take on high personal risk, incur high costs, and engage in self-sacrifice to achieve their vision.
5.
Behavior that is out of the ordinary- Those with charisma engage in behavior that is perceived as being
novel, unconventional, and counter to norms. When successful , these behaviors evoke surprise and admiration
in followers.
6.
Perceived as being a change agent- Charismatic leaders are perceived as agents of radical change rather
than as caretakers of the status quo.
7.
Environmental sensitivity- These leaders are able to make realistic assessments of the environmental
constraints and resources needed to bring about change.
Transactional vs Transformational leaders
Characteristics of Transactional and transformational leaders
Transactional Leaders
•
•
•
•
Contingent Reward: Contracts exchange of rewards for effort, promises rewards for good
performance, recognizes accomplishment
Management by exception (active): Watches and searches for deviations from rules and
standards, takes corrective action.
Management by exception (passive): Intervenes only if standards are not met
Laissez faire: Abdicates responsibilities, avoids making decisions
Transformational Leaders
•
•
•
•
Charisma : Provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride, gains respect trust.
Inspiration: Communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, expresses important
purposes in simple ways.
Intellectual Stimulations: Promotes intelligence, rationality, and careful problem solving.
Individualized consideration: Gives personal attention, treats each employee individually,
coaches, advises.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Traits of Exceptional Leaders
An outside in perspective – Eg Dell computer which puts the
customer at the very center
An evangelical leadership gene Eg – Lou Gerstner IBM had this
trait in shifting companies mindset he was intensely focused on
restoring outside in perspective
Understands the critical role of culture Eg- Michael Dell had the
performance oriented culture suggesting that if you don’t perform
at Dell go somewhere else Eg- Sam Walton had family oriented
culture in Wal Mart
Creates next generation products , processes or solutions EGThis is in alignment with the vision, Bill Gates had anticipated the
market for software , Sam Walton realized the tremendous
potential of Walmart in 1962
Implements the best ideas regardless of origin Eg Sam Walton
,went into the competitors stores to emulate the best practices,
IBM &GE ran into the trouble when their managers stopped
searching outside the company for answers
Advances the leadership body of knowledge
MODELS OF LEADERSHIPCHANGE - CHARISMA TO BUSINESS
LEADERS – FORMAL Vs MORAL AUTHORITY MATRIX
High +
+
Hitler
Position
+ George
Washington
+ Man Mohan
(Formal
Authority)
-
- Many
Celebrities
Low ( Stephen Covey )
- Mahatma Gandhi
CHOICE (Moral Authority)
High +
MODELS OF LEADERSHIP
(NATIONAL & CORPORATE)
‘Man Mohan – Murthy’
Gentle,Firm,Relentless
Humble,Ethical,
Moral authority,Discipline
Progressive,Professional
Sensitive, Principled
Vs
‘Bush – Blair’
Bluff, Boldness,
Brashness,
Vendetta, Arrogance,
Insensitivity,
Resourcefulness
Courage,Maneavouring
POA
• Popular concept of viewing leaders as coaches.
• Visit http://www.coachu.com- an organization specializes
in training coaches as managers.
• Look at international coaching federation
http://www.coachfederation.com find out the answers
• Would you like to be led by a coach as these
organizations define. What would be the advantages and
disadvantages of viewing leaders this way ?
• Based on your own leadership style, would you make a
good coach ? Why or why not ?
• Discuss a situation in which a coaching approach to
leadership is particularly effective. What would be a
situation where a coaching approach would seem to be
ineffective ?
Small - Case Study
Cognitive Resource Theory
Cognitive Resource Theory- reconceptualized by Fiedler Joe
Garcia
A theory of leadership that states that stress can unfavorably
affect a situation and that intelligence and experience can
lessen the influence of stress on the leader.
Research Support:
• Less intelligent individuals perform better in leadership roles under
high stress than do more intelligent individuals.
• Less experienced people perform better in leadership roles under low
stress than do more experienced people.
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational
Leadership Theory
Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)
A contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness.
Unable and
Unwilling
Unable but
Willing
Able and
Unwilling
Able and
Willing
Follower readiness:
ability and willingness
Leader: decreasing need
for support and supervision
Directive
High Task and Relationship
Orientations
Supportive
Participative
Monitoring
Leadership Styles and Follower Readiness
(Hersey and Blanchard)
Follower Readiness
Able
Supportive
Participative
Monitoring
Leadership
Styles
Unable
Directive
Unwilling
High Task
and
Relationship
Orientations
Willing
Leader–Member Exchange
Theory
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
Leaders create in-groups and out-groups, and subordinates with
in-group status will have higher performance ratings, less
turnover, and greater job satisfaction.
Leader-Member Exchange Theory
Path-Goal Theory
Path-Goal Theory
The theory that it is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining
their goals and to provide them the necessary direction and/or
support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall
objectives of the group or organization.
The Path-Goal Theory
E X H I B I T 11–4
Leader-Participation Model
Leader-Participation Model (Vroom and Yetton)
A leadership theory that provides a set of rules to determine the
form and amount of participative decision making in different
situations.
It was a decision tree having 7 contingency variables with 5
leadership styles.
The leadership model is now revised to 11 contingency variables.
The model however, fails to have stress,
Intelligence and experience in this.
Contingency Variables in the Revised Leader-Participation
Model
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Importance of the decision
Importance of obtaining follower commitment to the decision
Whether the leader has sufficient information to make a good decision
How well structured the problem is
Whether an autocratic decision would receive follower commitment
Whether followers “buy into” the organization’s goals
Whether there is likely to be conflict among followers over solution
alternatives
Whether followers have the necessary information to make a good
decision
Time constraints on the leader that may limit follower involvement
Whether costs to bring geographically dispersed members together is
justified
Importance to the leader of minimizing the time it takes to make the
decision
Importance of using participation as a tool for developing follower
decision skills
Deeds for leaders
• Vivah or marriage – between the king & kingdom
(leader and organization ).In the absence of this a
man is not a leader just an employee doing a job that
gives him salary and status. Don’t expect him to be
proactive ,creative or enthusiastic
• Rajsuya – One has to prove tangible achievement
and has to be accepted by peer group.
• Abhishek – public bathing was transformational ritual
Eg- a field sales manager sent to his headquarters
without any attempt by the management to
ceremonially crown him king in front of those he is
supposed to manage
»Article from corporate doisser
Deeds for leaders
• Dharma – his vision and how he expects to
achieve or realise this vision.
• Varna – station in the organization and ashrama
or stage in the employee
• Varana –dharma – means defining the roles
and rights and the responsibilities of every
employee
• Ashrama –dharma – knowing which member of
the organization is in which stage of his job or
his career – learning stage or retiring stage
Deeds for Leaders
• Ashwamedh yagna – this helped the kind identify
who submitted themselves to him and who
challenged
• Eg- PPT- horse, excel sheet with all the search
data justifying the nos –army,
• Digvijay means conquest of the sky or the
directions. In corporate world the king must travel
through different departments and ensure he is seen
and heard and to assert his authority and to tell
where he plans to go from here.
• Vajpeya - a yagna of regeneration. To make the
head roll to tell the world who is the boss