Prejudice: Disliking Others
Chapter Nine
The nature and power of prejudice
• What is prejudice?
– A negative prejudgement of a group and its
individual members
– Stereotypes
• Beliefs about personal attributes of a given group
– Discrimination
• Racism
• Sexism
The nature and power of prejudice
(cont.)
• How pervasive is prejudice?
– Racial prejudice
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•
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Overt prejudice has change in a short period of time
Intimate social realms
Subtle forms of prejudice
Overcoming prejudice
The nature and power of prejudice
(cont.)
• Gender prejudice
– Stereotypes accepted by both sexes
– Exaggeration of truths: Martin, 1987
– Gender attitudes:
• “women are wonderful effect”
• Respect vs. affection
• Subtle sexism
– The “personal/group discrimination discrepancy”
Social sources of prejudice
• Social inequalities
– Unequal status breeds prejudice
Social sources of prejudice (cont.)
• Social inequalities (cont.)
– Religion and prejudice
• “Religious” people are assoc’d w/ more prejudice
• “Religious” people are assoc’d w/ less prejudice
– Discrimination’s impact: The self-fulfilling
prophecy
• The “stereotype threat”
• Positive and negative stereotypes
Social sources of prejudice
• Social identity - the “we” in self-concept
– Social Identity Theory (Turner & Tajfel)
• We categorize - for utility
• We identify - “ingroup”
• We compare - “outgroup”
– Ingroup bias
Social sources of prejudice (cont.)
• Conformity to ingroup expectations
– The private/public discrepancy
• Institutional supports
– “Face-ism”
– Films and television
Emotional sources of prejudice
• Frustration and aggression:
– The scapegoat theory
– The realistic group conflict theory
• Personality Dynamics
– Need for status and belonging
– The authoritarian personality
Cognitive sources of prejudice
• Categorization
– Perceived similarities and differences
• Distinctive stimuli
– Distinctive people
– Vivid cases
– Distinctive events
Cognitive sources of prejudice
• Attribution: Is it a just world?
– Group-serving bias
– The just-world phenomenon
• Cognitive consequences of stereotypes
– Are stereotypes self-perpetuating?
– Do stereotypes bias judgments of individuals?
8 of 12
9 of 12
10 of 12
Ian Ayres, 1991
average price quoted on $11,000 car
• Black male:
$11,783
• Black female:
$12,237
• White male:
$11,362
• White female:
$11,504
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Social sources of prejudice (cont.)