A Conceptual Model for
Managed Culture Change
Chapter 17
Edgar H. Schein
Breathing some life into this chapter:
Thea Picklesimer
Stage 1
Unfreezing: Creating the
Motivation to Change
• Disconfimation/Unfreezing
• Creation of survival anxiety or
guilt
• Creation of psychological safety
to overcome learning anxiety
Unfreezing is:
• Any information that shows an
organization some of its goal
are NOT met.
• Scandals or embarrassing leaks
of information are the most
powerful type of
unfreezing/disconfirmation
• Leads to anxiety
Creation of:
Survival anxiety or guilt
• Unlearning old methods. New
learning, (learning anxiety).
• Fear of loss of power/position
• Temporary incompetence
• Punishment for incompetence
• Loss of personal identity
• Loss of group membership
• LEADS to RESISTANCE TO CHANGE
Resistance to Change
• Denial- (this won’t last).
• Scapegoating, passing the buck,
dodging, (others need to change
first. Not about us).
• Maneuvering bargaining, (What’s in it
for me? What is the long range
benefit?).
Principles
• Survival anxiety must be
greater than the learning
anxiety.
• Learning anxiety must be
reduced rather than increasing
survival anxiety.
Psychological safety to
overcome learning anxiety
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
A compelling positive vision
Formal training
Involvement of the learner
Informal training of groups/teams
Practice fields, coaches & feedback
Positive role models
Support Groups
Systems consistent with new way of
working
• Programs will fail without the 8
conditions
Stage 2
Learning New Concepts
• Imitation of and
identification with role
models
• Scanning for solutions
• Trial and error learning
Stage 3
Internalizing New Concepts,
Meanings and Standards
• Incorporation into self-concept
and identity
• Incorporation into ongoing
relationships
Refreezing
• The final step in the change process
• If the change process correctly diagnosed
the problem- new behaviors will produce
better results and confirm the process
• If not the change process begins againUnfreeze begins.
• Must be the rationale for the “fluid state”
of my employer.
Principles
• The change goal must be defined
concretely in terms of the specific problem
you are trying to fix, not as “culture
change.”
• Old culture can be discarded by getting rid
of the folks cheering for the old way- New
behavior will be learned ONLY if it leads to
success and satisfaction.
• Culture change requiring unlearning –it is
psychologically painful.
Summary
• CHANGE HURTS
• Resistance will be present
• Allow for learning anxiety
• Assist the learner to feel
psychologically safe.
References
• Schein, E. H. (2010). Organizational
culture and leadership. (4th ed.,
pp. 299-313). San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass.
QUESTIONS
• If no one has any
questions
•
LOUD APPLAUSE
Please
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A Conceptual Model for Managed Culture Change