PowerPoint
Presentations for
Seventh Edition
Philip G. Zimbardo
Robert L. Johnson
Vivian McCann
Prepared by
Beth M. Schwartz
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Chapter 1
Mind, Behavior, and Psychological
Science
This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display,
including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any
rental, lease, or lending of the program.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Claim:
If kids eat large amounts of sugar,
they become hyperactive.
Problem:
How would you
test the claim that
sugar makes
children
hyperactive?
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What Is Psychology–
and What Is It Not?
Psychology is a broad field,
with many specialties—but
fundamentally, psychology
is the science of behavior
and mental processes.
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What Is Psychology–
and What Is It Not?
Psychology is not:
• All about mental disorders and therapy
• Focused solely on diagnosing and
treating mental problems
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What Is Psychology–
and What Is It Not?
Psychology:
• Comes from psyche (Greek for “mind”) and
-ology (meaning “a field of study”)
• Literally means “the study of the mind”
• Covers both internal mental processes and
external, observable behaviors
• Based on objective, verifiable, scientific
evidence
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Figure 1.1 Work Settings of Psychologists
Source: 2009 Doctorate Employment Survey, APA Center for Workforce Studies. March 2011
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Three Ways of Doing
Psychology
Main Categories:
• Experimental psychologists
• Teachers of psychology
• Applied psychologists
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Applied Psychological
Specialties
Use knowledge developed by experimental
psychologists to tackle human problems
I/O
Sports
School
Clinical/Counseling
Forensic
Environmental
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Psychology Is Not Psychiatry
Psychology:
•Broad field of study
•Holds a Ph.D (Doctor
of Philosophy)
•Training emphasizes
research methods
•Advanced study in
specialization
Psychiatry:
•Medical specialty
•Holds an MD (Doctor of
Medicine)
•Training in treatment of
mental and behavioral
problems
•Licensed to prescribe
medicines
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Pseudo-Psychology
Erroneous assertions or practices set forth
as being scientific psychology
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•
•
Horoscopes
Handwriting analysis
Fortune telling
Subliminal messages
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Critical Thinking Skills:
Six Questions to Ask
1. What is the source?
2. Is the claim reasonable or extreme?
3. What is the evidence?
4. Could bias contaminate the conclusion?
5. Does the reasoning avoid common fallacies?
6. Does the issue require multiple perspectives?
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What Are Psychology’s Six Main
Perspectives?
Six main viewpoints dominate
modern psychology: biological,
cognitive, behavioral, wholeperson, developmental, and
sociocultural perspectives.
Each perspective grew out of
radical new concepts about
mind and behavior.
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Six Modern Perspectives of Psychology
Biological
Cognitive
Behavioral
Whole-Person
Developmental
Sociocultural
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Perspective
Biological
Cognitive
Behavioral
Whole-Person
What Determines Behavior?
The brain, the nervous system,
the endocrine system, and
genes
Fields of Study:
Neuroscience
Evolutionary Psychology
Developmental
Sociocultural
Sources:
Rene Descartes
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Perspective
Biological
View of Human Nature:
We are information-processing
systems.
Cognitive
Behavioral
Whole-Person
Developmental
Sociocultural
What Determines Behavior?
A person’s unique pattern of
perceptions, interpretations,
expectations, beliefs, and
memories
Sources:
Wilhelm Wundt
William James
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Perspective
Biological
Cognitive
Behavioral
View of Human Nature:
We respond to surroundings
according to principles of behavioral
learning.
What Determines Behavior?
Whole-Person
The stimuli in our environment, and
the previous consequences of our
behaviors
Developmental
Sources:
John B. Watson
B. F. Skinner
Sociocultural
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Perspective
Biological
Cognitive
Behavioral
Whole-Person
Developmental
Sociocultural
What Determines Behavior?
Psychodynamic: processes in our
unconscious minds
Source: Sigmund Freud
Humanistic: our innate needs to
grow and to fulfill our best possible
potential
Sources: Carl Rogers, Abraham
Maslow
Trait and temperament: unique
personality characteristics that are
consistent over time and across
situations
Source: Ancient Greeks
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Perspective
Biological
Cognitive
Behavioral
Whole-Person
Developmental
What Determines Behavior?
The Interaction of heredity and
environment, which unfolds in
predictable patterns throughout
the lifespan
Sources:
Mary Ainsworth
Jean Piaget
Sociocultural
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Perspective
Biological
Cognitive
Behavioral
Whole-Person
Developmental
Sociocultural
What Determines Behavior?
The power of the situation:
social and cultural influences
can overpower the influence of
all other determining factors.
Field of Study:
Cross-cultural psychology
Sources:
Stanley Milgram
Philip Zimbardo
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Table 1.2 A Sampling of Women’s Contributions to Psychology
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How Do Psychologists
Develop New Knowledge?
Psychologists, like all other
scientists, use the scientific
method to test their ideas
empirically.
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How Do Psychologists
Develop New Knowledge?
Scientific Method
A four-step process for empirical investigation of a
hypothesis under conditions designed to control
biases and subjective judgments
Empirical Investigation
An approach to research that relies on sensory
experience and observation as research data
Theory
A testable explanation for a set of facts or
observations
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The Four Steps of the Scientific Method
Developing a hypothesis
Gathering objective data
Analyzing the results
Publishing, criticizing, and
replicating the results
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The Four Steps of the Scientific Method
Developing a
hypothesis
Gathering
objective data
Analyzing the
results
Publishing,
criticizing, and
replicating the
results
Hypothesis
• A statement predicting the
outcome of a scientific study;
the relationship among
variables
Operational Definitions
• Exact procedures used in
establishing experimental
conditions and
measurement of results
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The Four Steps of the Scientific Method
Developing a
hypothesis
Gathering
objective data
Analyzing the
results
Data
• Pieces of information
gathered by a researcher to
be used to test a hypothesis
Publishing,
criticizing, and
replicating the
results
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The Four Steps of the Scientific Method
Developing a
hypothesis
Gathering
objective data
Analyzing the
results
Publishing,
criticizing, and
replicating the
results
Based on statistical analyses
of results, the hypothesis is
accepted or rejected.
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The Four Steps of the Scientific Method
Developing a
hypothesis
Gathering
objective data
Analyzing the
results
Publishing,
criticizing, and
replicating the
results
The completed study is
presented to the scientific
community.
Replicate
• Redoing an experiment to
see if you get the same
results
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Figure 1.5 Four Steps in the Scientific Method
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Questions Science Cannot Answer
The scientific method is not appropriate for
answering questions that cannot be put
to an objective, empirical test.
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Ethics
Morality
Preferences
Aesthetics
Existential issues
Religion
Law
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Five Types of Psychological Research
Experiments
Correlational Studies
Surveys
Naturalistic Observations
Case Studies
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Types of Psychological Research
Experiments
The researcher controls all conditions and
directly manipulates the conditions.
Independent Variable
Dependent Variable
Experimental Group
Control Group
Random Assignment
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Types of Psychological Research
Correlational Study
The relationship between variables is studied,
but without experimental manipulation of an
independent variable; cause-and-effect
relationships cannot be determined.
Positive Correlations
Negative Correlations
Zero Correlations
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Types of Correlations
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Types of Psychological Research
Surveys
A technique used in descriptive research;
typically involves seeking people’s responses to
a prepared set of verbal or written items
Political Pollsters
Marketing Consultants
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Types of Psychological Research
Naturalistic Observations
A form of descriptive research involving behavior
assessment of people or animals in their natural
surroundings
Childrearing Practices
Shopping Habits
Animal Behavior
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Types of Psychological Research
Case Studies
Research involving a single individual (or, at
most, a few individuals)
Small Sample Size
Lack of Control
Limited Generalizability
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Biases in Psychological Research
Expectancy Bias
• The researcher allows his or her
expectations to affect the outcome of a
study
•Blind control
Controlling Bias:
•Placebo: a sham “drug” or fake treatment
•Double-blind control: both participants and
researchers are unaware of group
assignment
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Ethical Issues in Psychological
Research
American Psychological Association (APA)
• Ethical principles of psychologists and
code of conduct
• Shields participants from potentially
harmful procedures
• Ensures confidentiality
Institutional Review Board (IRB)
• Examines all studies proposed
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Ethical Issues in Psychological
Research
Informed Consent
• Participants must be informed of all
procedures, and any potential dangers, so they
may opt out they so desire.
Deception
• Allowable if no substantial risks are likely
Animal Studies
• Specific guidelines need to be followed.
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