Africa, Overcoming Personal Rule
By Risa Takahashi
THE DEVELOPMENTAL TRAP
• Conditions of Africa
1. 23 poorest countries
2. HIV/AIDS problem
3. Not enough drinking water
4. Under nutrition
5. Low life expectancy
FIGURE 11.1 WORLD BANK
GOVERNANCE RANKINGS, 2005
THE PATHODOLOGY OF PERSONAL
RULE
• Why is Africa economically stagnated and
politically corrupted?
• “corrupt, lawless, personal rule” (pp. 247).
• Do African countries need change in leader?
AFRICA’S (SOMEWHAT) NEW
POLITICAL ERA
• Change in political system: democracy
• Now, African presidents feel pressured due to
International pressure and public opinion
• “the growth of civil society” (pp. 256)
THE BAROMETER OF DEMOCRACY
• More than half of African counties prefer
democracy and reject military rule, one-party
rule, and one-man rule.
• “The problem is not that Africans do not value
and demand democracy but rather that
African parties and politicians are not meeting
their citizens’ aspirations” (Diamond, 258).
• “supply of democracy” (pp. 258).
• “demand for democracy” (pp. 259)
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
 How can African countries successfully pursue
democracy? What is necessary?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Change in political system (democracy)
Change in election (free and fair)
International support
public opinion and civil society
 What is the outcome of democracy in Africa?
1. Public goods are distributed to the people.
 Does democracy lead development?
YES
What is allowing and hindering
democracy in Africa?
1. Change in political system and election,
International support and public opinion and
civil society allow democracy in Africa.
2. Electoral system in Africa and African
politicians and parties hinder democracy in
Africa.