Africa, Overcoming Personal Rule By Risa Takahashi THE DEVELOPMENTAL TRAP • Conditions of Africa 1. 23 poorest countries 2. HIV/AIDS problem 3. Not enough drinking water 4. Under nutrition 5. Low life expectancy FIGURE 11.1 WORLD BANK GOVERNANCE RANKINGS, 2005 THE PATHODOLOGY OF PERSONAL RULE • Why is Africa economically stagnated and politically corrupted? • “corrupt, lawless, personal rule” (pp. 247). • Do African countries need change in leader? AFRICA’S (SOMEWHAT) NEW POLITICAL ERA • Change in political system: democracy • Now, African presidents feel pressured due to International pressure and public opinion • “the growth of civil society” (pp. 256) THE BAROMETER OF DEMOCRACY • More than half of African counties prefer democracy and reject military rule, one-party rule, and one-man rule. • “The problem is not that Africans do not value and demand democracy but rather that African parties and politicians are not meeting their citizens’ aspirations” (Diamond, 258). • “supply of democracy” (pp. 258). • “demand for democracy” (pp. 259) DISCUSSION QUESTIONS How can African countries successfully pursue democracy? What is necessary? 1. 2. 3. 4. Change in political system (democracy) Change in election (free and fair) International support public opinion and civil society What is the outcome of democracy in Africa? 1. Public goods are distributed to the people. Does democracy lead development? YES What is allowing and hindering democracy in Africa? 1. Change in political system and election, International support and public opinion and civil society allow democracy in Africa. 2. Electoral system in Africa and African politicians and parties hinder democracy in Africa.