CHAPTER 1 AP PSYCHOLOGY OUTLINE An Introduction to Psychology DEFINING AND DESCRIBING PSYCHOLOGY DEFINITION OF PSYCHOLOGY – The scientific study of behavior and mind “MIND” refers to the contents and processes of subjective experience B.HOW TO STUDY THE MIND INVESTIGATING THE “BLACK BOX” 1. Insight Approach – “Tell me how your mind works” Problem – Self report error 2. Physical Structure – analyze and study the structures of the brain and body Problem – The whole may work differently from the sum of the parts 3. Measurement – use tests and procedures to describe the mind’s limits and abilities. The current approach of most psychologists C. WHAT PSYCHOLOGISTS DO 1. 2. 3. 4. Clinical psychologists – diagnose and treat psychological conditions/problems. Applied psychologists – extend the principles of scientific psychology to everyday problems in the real world Research psychologists – conduct experiments to discover the basic principles of behavior and mind Differences between a psychologist and a psychiatrist a. Psychologist – may do testing/counseling, but usually cannot prescribe medication b. Psychiatrist – a medical doctor who specializes in psychological problems and prescribes medication II. EVOLUTION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL THOUGHT A. NATURE OR NURTURE – WHERE DOES KNOWLEDGE COME FROM? Empiricists – (Nurture) knowledge is gained through experiences and the senses. We are born “tabula rasa” or “with a blank slate”. Ex. The Greek philosopher Aristotle 2. Nativism – (Nature) people are born with innate or preexisting structures for knowledge. This includes Gestalt Psychology Ex. The German philosopher Immanuel Kant 3. Darwin and Evolution – (Nature) natural selection creates creatures who adapt and survive through solving problems better. Their offspring inherit these characteristics 4. Current thinking – most psychological phenomena are the product of genes and the environment 1. B. PSYCHOLOGY EMERGES AS A SCIENCE 1. Structuralism – We can understand the structure of the mind by breaking it down into its elementary components (like chemistry). Used Systematic Introspection to break down conscious experience. Wilhelm Wundt created the first psychological test lab in 1879. 2. Functionalism – We can understand the mind by studying the function and purpose of mental activity. Emphasized survival and adaption. William James was an American psychologist who represented the functionalist view. 3. Behaviorism – We should focus only on observable and measurable behavior in psychology. John Watson examined how changes in the environment affect behavior. 4. Modern Psychologists – Observe behavior systematically, develop theories or hypotheses, then test them using the Scientific Method * The roots of modern Psychology are in the studies of Philosophy and Physiology C. EARLY INFLUENCES OF WOMEN 1. Mary Calkins – The first female president of the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1905 2. Margaret Washburn – The first female to receive a Ph.D in Psychology. Wrote the book The Animal Mind in 1908 D. Influence of the Clinic 1. Psychoanalysis – Analyzed the contents of the mind to gain insight into psychological problems. Emphasized the unconscious determinants of behavior. a. Sigmund Freud – The founder of Psychoanalysis who used dream analysis and free association to look for symbols or keys in the unconscious mind to understand psychological problems. 2.Humanistic Psychology – Emphasized the human potential for self-awareness, growth, choice and responsibility. a. Carl Rogers- Developed client-centered therapy in which the therapist acts as a friend and supporter to the patient instead of a judge or analyst b. Abraham Maslow – Humanist psychologist who believed that humans are built for personal growth and seek their fullest potential. Developed Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. III. UNDERSTANDING THE FOCUS OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY A. B. The Eclectic Approach – The current approach of most modern psychologists which involves adopting methods and ideas from a variety of psychological schools. The Cognitive Revolution – The shift away from Behaviorism in the 1950’s due to the development of new research techniques and computers. Cognitive Psychology examines the internal mental processes and views the mind as an information processing system. C. Developments in Biology – Uses new technology and physiological recording devices to help us understand the biological underpinnings of behavior (Ex. MRI, CAT, EEG). New understandings in brain chemistry help us to develop new medications to treat psychological disorders. D. Influences of Culture – We now recognize that culture exerts strong influences over behavior. Culture is defined as the shared values, customs and beliefs of a group of people.