OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
OCR Examinations
A Level Physical Education
A 7875
Module 2565 : Option B2
part 2
Psychology of Sport Performance
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Module 2565 B2.2.1
INDEX
Index
3
4
5
6
7
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
- SELF-CONFIDENCE AND SELF-EFFICACY
- SELF-CONFIDENCE - CONFIDENCE
- SELF-CONFIDENCE - LACK OF CONFIDENCE /OVERCONFIDENCE
- THE ROLE OF THE COACH
- SELF-EFFICACY - BANDURA’S MODEL
PERFORMANCE ACCOMPLISHMENTS / VICARIOUS EXPERIENCES
8 - SELF-EFFICACY - BANDURA’S MODEL
VERBAL PERSUASION / EMOTIONAL AROUSAL
9 - SELF-CONFIDENCE - WEINBERG’S MODEL
10 - VEALEY’s MODEL OF SPORT CONFIDENCE
11 - CONCENTRATION
CUE UTILISATION / USE OF COGNITIVE TECHNIQUES
12 - CONCENTRATION AND ATTENTIONAL STYLES
NIDEFFER’S ATTENTIONAL STYLES
13 - AROUSAL - RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM
14 - AROUSAL AND DRIVE THEORY
15 - INVERTED U THEORY - OPTIMUM AROUSAL
16 - AROUSAL CURVES - EXAMPLES
17 - CATASTROPHE THEORY
18 - TASK DIFFERENCES - OPTIMUM AROUSAL
19 - TASK DIFFERENCES
COMPLEX / SKILFULLY DIFFICULT - SIMPLE / GROSS TASKS
20 - ANXIETY - A STATE / TRAIT
21 - STRESS AND STRESSORS
22 - STRESSORS
23 - GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME
24 - PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS
EXTERNAL / INTERNAL / COMPETITIVE ORIENTATION
25 - EUSTRESS
26 - EFFECT OF STRESS ON PERFORMANCE - INHIBITION
PERFORMANCE OF SKILLS / CONCENTRATION / STRESS
27 - SYMPTOMS OF STRESS - PHYSIOLOGICAL / PSYCHOLOGICAL
BEHAVIOURAL SYMPTOMS
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28 - THE MANAGEMENT OF STRESS
29 - RELAXATION TECHNIQUES
30 - STRESS CONTROL TECHNIQUES - COGNITIVE / BIOFEEDBACK
31 - MENTAL PREPARATION FOR PERFORMANCE
MENTAL REHEARSAL / GOAL SETTING
32 - SOCIAL FACILITATION - DIFFERENT TYPES OF AUDIENCE
33 - SOCIAL FACILITATION
CO-ACTORS / FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE
34 - FACILITATION AND INHIBITION
35 - SOCIAL FACILITATION AND EVALUATION APPREHENSION
36 - THE DOMINANT RESPONSE
37 - THE DISTRACTION EFFECT
38 - HOMEFIELD ADVANTAGE - HOME / AWAY EFFECT
39 - AGGRESSION IN SPORT - ASSERTIVE PLAY
HOSTILE / INSTRUMENTAL AGGRESSION
40 - CAUSES OF AGGRESSION - PHYSIOLOGICAL AROUSAL
41 - THEORIES OF AGGRESSION
42 - SPECTATOR AGGRESSION
43 - RESPONSIBILITY FOR AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR
44 - PREVENTION OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR
GOVERNING BODY
45 - PREVENTION OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR
COACHES / PLAYERS
46 - ATTRIBUTION - WEINER’S MODEL
47 - WEINER’S MODEL
LOCUS OF CAUSALITY / STABILITY
48 - ATTRIBUTION
SUCCESS / FAILURE / FUTURE EXPECTATIONS
49 - THE ATTRIBUTION PROCESS
50 - LEARNED HELPLESSNESS (LH)
ATTRIBUTION RETRAINING
Module 2565 B2.2.2
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Self Confidence
SELF-CONFIDENCE AND SELF-EFFICACY
belief that one
can succeed
SELF-CONFIDENCE
SELFCONFIDENCE
an attitude
SELF-EFFICACY
the perception of
an ability to
perform a particular
sporting task
successfully
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SELFEFFICACY
an aspect of
self-esteem
a situation specific
form of
self-confidence
Module 2565 B2.2.3
Self Confidence
SELF-CONFIDENCE
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
CONFIDENCE
•
•
arouses positive emotions
allows the athlete to
playing to win
– remain calm
under pressure
– be assertive when
taking risks
required
•
•
facilitates concentration
enables focus on the
never give up
important aspects of a task
•
enables the setting of
challenging but realistic goals
increases effort
•
•
•
positive
calm
assertive
CONFIDENCE
concentration
focus
effort
realistic goals
affects game strategies
– a confident player plays to win even if it means
taking risks
affects psychological momentum
– a confident athlete take each point or play at a time
– and never gives up
– even when defeat is imminent
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Module 2565 B2.2.4
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Self Confidence
SELF-CONFIDENCE
LACK OF CONFIDENCE
• causes stress under pressure
• causes concentration on outside
stressors
– mistakes
– spectators
• causes the setting of goals which are
either too easy or too hard
• causes the athlete to try to avoid
mistakes
• non-confident athletes find it difficult to
reverse negative psychological
momentum
– once things start to go wrong
– it is difficult to think positively
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OVERCONFIDENCE OR FALSE
CONFIDENCE
• is dangerous because it can lead to
– inadequate preparation
– low motivation
– low arousal
• which are difficult to correct
when competition is under way
Module 2565 B2.2.5
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Self Confidence
THE ROLE OF THE COACH
ROLE OF THE COACH
• develop self-confidence
• and self-efficacy
• through successful achievement
Previous
•
•
ensure early and continued success
by careful selection of
– goals
– tasks
– levels of competition
•
focusing on successful personal
performance not on winning
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Module 2565 B2.2.6
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Self Confidence
SELF-EFFICACY - BANDURA’S MODEL
ATHLETIC
PERFORMANCE
performance
accomplishments
EFFICACY
EXPECTATIONS
PERFORMANCE ACCOMPLISHMENTS
• consist of past experiences
• example : previously performed skill at
dribbling a soccer ball
• if this is successful
• then this leads to greater self-efficacy
• at this particular task
• in the future
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modelling vicarious
experiences
VICARIOUS EXPERIENCES
• consist of what has been observed
in others
• performing a similar skill
• example : observing another player in
your team dribbling a soccer ball
• if the model is of similar age / ability
• and is successful
• then this may lead to greater selfefficacy
Module 2565 B2.2.7
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Self Confidence
SELF-EFFICACY - BANDURA’S MODEL
ATHLETIC
PERFORMANCE
performance
accomplishments
EFFICACY
EXPECTATIONS
verbal
persuasion
VERBAL PERSUASION
• encouragement can lead to greater
self-efficacy
• if the person giving encouragement is
of high status
• compared with the performer
Previous
modelling vicarious
experiences
emotional
arousal
EMOTIONAL AROUSAL
• if arousal is too high
– state anxiety - A-state
• this could lead to low self-efficacy
• mental rehearsal / physical
relaxation could
– lead to greater confidence
– and a calmer approach
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Module 2565 B2.2.8
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Self Confidence
SELF-CONFIDENCE
WEINBERG’S MODEL of developing
self-confidence
prepare well
use imagery
SELFCONFIDENCE
think
confidently
Previous
be in good
shape
act
confidently
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Module 2565 B2.2.9
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Self Confidence
VEALEY’s MODEL OF SPORT CONFIDENCE
VEALEY’S MODEL
trait sport
trait sport confidence
confidence
• the usual level of self-confidence
• example : a discus thrower is generally
confident about making a throw
competitive orientation
• the perceived opportunity to
achieve a sport performance
• example : the discus thrower is
motivated by a national championships
to throw well
state sport confidence
• the level of self confidence related to a
specific situation
• example : the discus thrower feels
confident because the wind is in the
right direction
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SPORT
CONFIDENCE
competitive
orientation
state sport
confidence
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Module 2565 B2.2.10
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Concentration
CONCENTRATION
CONCENTRATION
• a state of mind in which attention is
directed towards a specific aim or
activity
• attentional focus
• control of attention towards a task
CUE UTILISATION
• cues can be used by the sportaperson
– to direct attention
– to trigger appropriate arousal
responses
– to enable attentional focus at a
relevant moment
• sometimes, narrowing of attentional
focus by an aroused player
– will cause lack of awareness of
broader play issues
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USE OF COGNITIVE TECHNIQUES TO
ASSIST CONCENTRATION
• imagery
• mental rehearsal
• relaxation
• can be used to direct the
sportsperson’s mind towards a specific
task
• these techniques can be thought to
manage the stress of the situation
• to manage anxiety in a productive
way
Module 2565 B2.2.11
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Concentration
CONCENTRATION AND ATTENTIONAL STYLES
NIDEFFER’S ATTENTIONAL STYLES
BROAD
• a player concentrates on the whole game
– all players’ positions and movements
– open skills
NARROW
• the player concentrates on one aspect of
the game
– the goalkeeper
– closed skills
INTERNAL
• the player decides to concentrate on his
own technique
EXTERNAL
• the player focuses on the position of his
opposite number
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Module 2565 B2.2.12
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Emotional Control
AROUSAL
AROUSAL
• a state of mental and physical
preparedness for action
• this is the level of inner drives
• which forces the sportsperson to
strive to achieve
• it needs to be under control
• and at the right level depending
on the task
• a faster heart rate
• faster breathing rate
• sweating
• ability to focus (concentrate)
• response to danger
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RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM
• RAS is a system within the brain
which causes arousal
• extroverts have lower levels of
intrinsic arousal than introverts
• hence extroverts seek situations of
high arousal
• introverts seek low arousal
situations
Module 2565 B2.2.13
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Emotional Control
AROUSAL AND DRIVE THEORY
DRIVE THEORY
•
•
•
the higher the arousal level
the higher the achievement /
performance level
the more likely that a well-learned
skill (a dominant response) will be
produced
increased
arousal
expert
novice
increased
performance
worse
performance
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WITH INCREASED AROUSAL
• the dominant habit / most usual
behaviour will be reproduced
• a poorly-learned skill will give a
performance full of mistakes
• a well-learned skill will give a
skilled performance
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Module 2565 B2.2.14
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Emotional Control
INVERTED U THEORY
INVERTED U THEORY
•
•
•
THE POSITION OF OPTIMUM
AROUSAL DEPENDS ON
there is an optimum arousal level
if aroused more than this
performance will decline
type of activity / task complexity
• gross skills (weight lifting) require
high arousal
• fine skills (snooker) require low
arousal
skill level of the performer
• the more skilful the performer
• the higher the optimum arousal
could be
personality of the performer
• the more extrovert the performer
• the higher the arousal likely for
optimum performance
• whereas introverts would optimise
performance at lower arousal levels
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Module 2565 B2.2.15
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Emotional Control
AROUSAL CURVES
BEST PERFORMANCE
• Sam’s performance has the
highest level
PSYCHING UP
• Jon’s best performance takes place
at the highest arousal level
• he needs to psych himself up the
most to achieve optimum
performance
CONTROLLED AROUSAL
• Ted’s best performance takes place
between a narrow range of
arousal levels
• therefore arousal needs to be
carefully controlled
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Module 2565 B2.2.16
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Emotional Control
CATASTROPHE THEORY
CATASTROPHE THEORY
• here performance increases as
arousal increases
• but if arousal gets too high
• a complete loss of performance
occurs
•
example : the golfer who tries too
hard and completely misses the
fairway from his drive at the 18th
hole when in a winning position
•
example : the gymnast who
completely messes up her
previously well-executed routine in a
national final
•
anxiety affects arousal
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Module 2565 B2.2.17
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Emotional Control
TASK DIFFERENCES
OPTIMUM AROUSAL
• can be identified
• can be controlled by successful
performers
• depends on
– circumstances
– personalities
• whether tasks are
– simple or complex
– fine or gross
– strength or endurance
– information processing
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Module 2565 B2.2.18
Emotional Control
TASK DIFFERENCES
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
COMPLEX / SKILFULLY DIFFICULT
TASKS
• fine, delicate and highly controlled
• or information processing tasks
• high arousal interferes with task
• sometimes very low arousal is required
(calmness)
• close control required
• narrow band of arousal best
SIMPLE / GROSS TASKS
• easy / large basic movements /
strength or endurance tasks
• bigger margin for error
• broader optimal arousal zone
• tolerate bigger arousal levels before
performance falls
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Module 2565 B2.2.19
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Emotional Control
ANXIETY
ANXIETY
• an emotional state
• similar to fear
• associated with
– physiological (somatic)
arousal
– psychological (cognitive)
arousal
– feelings of nervousness
– feelings of apprehension
TRAIT ANXIETY - A TRAIT
• an inbuilt (trait) part of the personality
• a tendency to be fearful of unfamiliar
situations
• a tendency to perceive competitive
situations as threatening
• a tendency to respond to competitive
situations with apprehension and
tension
STATE ANXIETY - A STATE
• an emotional response to a
particular situation
• characterised by feelings of
nervousness and apprehension
• often temporary
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Module 2565 B2.2.20
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Emotional Control
STRESS AND STRESSORS
STRESS
• a response of the body to any demands made on it
• symptoms of stress
– physiological
social
chemical
– psychological
– behavioural
psychological
STRESSORS
biochemical
climatic
physical
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bacterial
Module 2565 B2.2.21
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Emotional Control
STRESSORS
STRESSORS
social
• disapproval of parents / peers
• rejection by peers / parents
• isolation from normal social interactions
chemical / biochemical
• harm by ingestion of substances
bacterial
• illness caused by micro-organisms
physical
• injury / pain / exhaustion
climatic
• extremes of weather
• hot weather for endurance activities
• rain and cold on bare skin
psychological
• mismatch between perception of demands of task
• and ability to cope
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Module 2565 B2.2.22
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Emotional Control
GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME
STRESSOR
ALARM
REACTION
RESISTANCE
stressor removed
- homeostasis
regained
stressor
maintained illness happens
EXHAUSTION
•
•
Previous
homeostasis = the process of
establishing body equilibrium in
its functions
well-being
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Module 2565 B2.2.23
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Emotional Control
PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS
EXTERNAL - THE SITUATION
• perception of the demands of the
situation
• example : I’ve got to run a PB to
win
INTERNAL
• perception of the performer’s
ability to cope
• example : I got a terribly slow start
last time
COMPETITIVE ORIENTATION
• perception of the importance of
the situation
• example : there’s a gold medal
hanging on this
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Module 2565 B2.2.24
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Emotional Control
EUSTRESS
EUSTRESS
• a type of stress with a positive effect
• the performer actively seeks the thrill
of the danger
• and enjoys the excitement and feeling
of satisfaction when it is over
Previous
•
examples :
– bungy jumping
– free rock climbing
– extreme sport skiing
– ultra high diving
•
‘I like an unforgiving situation where if
you make a mistake you suffer for it’
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Module 2565 B2.2.25
Emotional Control
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
EFFECT OF STRESS ON PERFORMANCE
INHIBITION
• inhibition of performance
PERFORMANCE OF SKILLS
• stress may act directly on the
information processing of skill
• motor elements of skill are
performed less well
• muscles tense
• muscular control is reduced
CONCENTRATION
• concentration is difficult
• span of attention is narrowed
STRESS
• awareness of being under stress
itself acts as a stressor
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Module 2565 B2.2.26
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Emotional Control
SYMPTOMS OF STRESS
PHYSIOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS
• increased heart rate
• increased blood pressure
• increased sweating
• increased breathing rate
• decreased flow of blood to the skin
• increased oxygen uptake
• dry mouth
BEHAVIOURAL SYMPTOMS
• rapid talking
• nail biting
• pacing
• scowling
• yawning
• trembling
• raised voice pitch
• frequent urination
PSYCHLOGICAL SYMPTOMS
• worry
• feeling overwhelmed
• inability to make decisions
• inability to concentrate
• inability to direct attention appropriately
• narrowing of attention
• feeling out of control
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Module 2565 B2.2.27
Emotional Control
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
THE MANAGEMENT OF
STRESS
self-induced
stress worrying about
performance
cognitive
limit anxiety to
manageable
levels
replacing
negative thoughts
with positive ones
STRESS
MANAGEMENT
somatic
persuading the body
that the stressor does
not exist
self-directed
imagery
relaxation
progressive
relaxation training
biofeedback
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Module 2565 B2.2.28
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Emotional Control
RELAXATION TECHNIQUES
IMAGERY RELAXATION
• think of a place with associations of warmth and
relaxation
• imagine the activity or technique
• practise in non-stressful situations
• use prior to competition
PROGRESSIVE RELAXATION TRAINING (PRT)
• learn to tense then deeply relax separate muscle
groups
SELF-DIRECTED RELAXATION TRAINING
• focus on each of the major muscle groups in turn
• allow breathing to become slow and easy
• visualise the tension flowing out of a muscle group
• until completely relaxed
• eventually combine muscle groups
• and achieve total relaxation quickly
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Module 2565 B2.2.29
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Emotional Control
STRESS CONTROL TECHNIQUES
BIOFEEDBACK
• monitor skin temperature
– cold if stressed
– warm if unstressed
• galvanic skin response
– electrical conductivity of skin increases when moist
– tense muscle cause sweating
• electromygraphy
– electrodes taped to specific muscles
– can detect electrical activity
– hence tension in muscle
COGNITIVE STRESS MANAGEMENT
• control of emotions and thought processes
• linked to attributions
• eliminate negative feelings
• develop self-confidence
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Module 2565 B2.2.30
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Emotional Control
MENTAL PREPARATION FOR PERFORMANCE
MENTAL REHEARSAL
• consciously imagine a performance
• rerun a past experience
• preview hope-for success
• helps concentration
• helps focus on strengths and weaknesses
• positive effect on skill learning
• but not as good as actual practice
GOAL SETTING
• success is more likely because :
• learning is focused
• uncertainty is reduced
• confidence is increased
• practice is planned and structured
• evaluation and feedback are specific
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Module 2565 B2.2.31
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Social Facilitation
SOCIAL FACILITATION
SOCIAL FACILITATION
• the effect that the presence of spectators
• has on the way sportspeople play or perform
• can be positive
– facilitation
– example : crowd encourages a team playing well
• can be negative
– inhibition
– example : crowd jeers at a team not playing well
DIFFERENT TYPES OF AUDIENCE
• passive others (social facilitation)
– audience
– coactors
• interactive others
– competitors
– spectators
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Module 2565 B2.2.32
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Social Facilitation
SOCIAL FACILITATION
CO-ACTORS
• a passive form of audience
• involved in the same activity
• at the same time as the performer
• but not competing directly
• examples :
– officials / umpires / referees
– members of own team
– ball boys / helpers
FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE
• size of audience
• proximity of audience
• intentions of the audience
• skill level of the task
• personality of the performer
• type of task
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Module 2565 B2.2.33
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Social Facilitation
FACILITATION AND INHIBITION
FACILITATION
• high arousal leads to improved
performance by
– highly skilled performer
– gross skills
– simple skills
– extrovert performer
INHIBITION
• high arousal leads to reduced
performance by
– novices
– fine skills
– complex skills
– introvert performer
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Module 2565 B2.2.34
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Social Facilitation
SOCIAL FACILITATION AND EVALUATION APPREHENSION
SOCIAL FACILITATION (ZAJONC)
• the mere presence of others creates arousal
• which then affects performance
• depending on which part of the learning curve
• performance is only improved if the dominant
response is the one desired
EVALUATION APPREHENSION (COTTRELL)
• audience is perceived as evaluating performance
causing anxiety
• thus evaluation apprehension causes arousal
• coping strategies include
– stress management
– mental rehearsal
– selective attention (away from evaluators)
– lowering the importance of the situation
– training with an audience present
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AUDIENCE
increase in
psychological
arousal
dominant
performance
mode
reduced
performance
while learning
improved
performance
when expert
Module 2565 B2.2.35
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Social Facilitation
THE DOMINANT RESPONSE
AROUSAL CAUSED BY AUDIENCE
EVALUATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF
A CORRECT DOMINANT RESPONSE
• audience evaluation causes arousal
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
if a skill is poorly learnt (early in the
learning curve)
then arousal causes incorrect response
because incorrect response is
dominant
if a skill is well-learnt (later in the
learning curve)
then arousal causes correct response
because the correct response is
dominant
look at inverted U theory for connection
between arousal and performance
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Module 2565 B2.2.36
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Social Facilitation
THE DISTRACTION EFFECT
DISTRACTION
• is an aspect of concentration (or
lack of concentration)
• attentional focus is very
important for the effective
sportsperson
• if this is disrupted then he / she is
distracted from his / her task
•
•
•
Previous
audience and evaluation
apprehension can act as a
distraction
the sportsperson needs therefore to
practise in distracting
circumstances
and practise switching attentional
focus when faced with potentially
distracting circumstances
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Module 2565 B2.2.37
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Social Facilitation
HOMEFIELD ADVANTAGE
HOME / AWAY EFFECT ON
PERFORMANCE
• more teams win at home than
away
• a crowd may be judged as
supportive or hostile
• high levels of anxiety caused by
hostility may reduce performance
•
•
•
Previous
the environment is familiar to
home teams
therefore home players are more
comfortable
this limits anxiety and enables a
worry free performance
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Module 2565 B2.2.38
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Aggression
AGGRESSION IN SPORT
main purpose is the
intention to harm
another participant
player / umpire /
spectator
outside the
rules of the
sport
includes verbal
aggression if
intended to
embarrass or
hurt
AGGRESSION
not include
accidentally
injuring
or harming
Previous
not include
eyeballing or
intentionally
damaging
equipment
Next
ASSERTIVE PLAY
• no intent to harm
• legitimate force within the rules
• unusual effort
• unusual energy
• sometimes called channelled
aggression
HOSTILE AGGRESSION
• intent to harm
• goal is to harm
• arousal and anger involved
INSTRUMENTAL AGGRESSION
• intent to harm
• goal to win
• used as a tactic ‘dirty play’
• no anger
• illegal in all sports except boxing
Module 2565 B2.2.39
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Aggression
CAUSES OF AGGRESSION
PHYSIOLOGICAL AROUSAL
• anger towards another person
• causing an increase in arousal
• highly motivated
UNDERDEVELOPED MORAL REASONING
• players with low levels of moral reasoning
• more likely to be aggressive
BRACKETED MORALITY
• double standard
• condoning aggressive behaviour may
retard players’ moral development
• ‘aggression is wrong in life, but OK in sport’
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SPECIFIC CAUSES
• high environmental temperature
• home or away
• embarrassment
• losing
• pain
• unfair officiating
• playing below capability
• large score difference
• low league standing
• later stage of play (near the end of
a game)
• reputation of opposition (get your
retaliation in first)
Module 2565 B2.2.40
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Aggression
THEORIES OF AGGRESSION
INSTINCT THEORY
• aggression is innate and instinctive
• caused by survival of the species
• sport releases built up aggression,
catharsis
• Lorentz
FRUSTRATION AGGRESSION THEORY
• aggression caused by frustration
• the person being blocked in the
achievement of a goal
• this causes a drive towards the source
of frustration
• Dollard
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SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
• aggression is learned
• by observation of other’s behaviour
• then imitation of this aggressive
behaviour
• this is then reinforced by social
acceptance of the behaviour
• Bandura
AGGRESSIVE CUE HYPOTHESIS
• frustration causes anger and arousal
• this creates a readiness for aggression
• which can be initiated by an incident
during the performance (the cue)
• this is a learned response
• example : a player sees a colleague
fouled then decides to join in
• Berkowitz
Module 2565 B2.2.41
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Aggression
SPECTATOR AGGRESSION
SPECTATOR AGGRESSION caused by
• player aggression
• poor or biased officials
• alcohol
• racial or national abuse
• adult male crowd
SUPPORTERS can help prevent
aggression by
• avoid showing aggression
• avoid advocating aggression
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Module 2565 B2.2.42
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Aggression
RESPONSIBILITY FOR AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR
the
performer
RESPONSIBILITY
FOR
AGGRESSION
officials
coaches
influential
others
teachers
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parents
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Module 2565 B2.2.43
Aggression
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
PREVENTION OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR
GOVERNING BODY
• code of conduct
– coaches
– players
– officials
• use of strong officials
•
use
–
–
–
•
use of language
– reduce media sensationalism
•
coach education programme
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of rules of games
punishment (remove league points)
sin bins
reward non-aggressive acts (FIFA fair
play award)
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Module 2565 B2.2.44
Aggression
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
PREVENTION OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR
COACHES / PLAYERS
• promote ethical behaviour
• promote sporting behaviour
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
control aggressive behaviour
stress management strategies / relaxation
techniques
self control strategies
reduce levels of arousal
maintain a healthy will to win without winning
being everything
set performance goals rather than outcome goals
remove players from field if at risk of aggression
enable channelling of aggression towards a
performance goal
use peer pressure ‘avoid letting the side down’
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Module 2565 B2.2.45
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Attribution Theory
ATTRIBUTION
ATTRIBUTION
• the process of giving reasons for
behaviour
• and ascribing causes for events
• example : the player played badly today
because the weather was poor
WEINER’S MODEL
• has four attributions :
• ability
STABILITY
• effort
• task difficulty
• luck
•
•
•
•
•
LOCUS OF CAUSALITY
STABLE
UNSTABLE
INTERNAL
EXTERNAL
ability
task difficulty
'we were more 'the opposition are
world champions'
skilful'
effort
'we tried hard'
luck
'the court was
slippy'
arranged in two dimensions :
LOCUS OF CAUSALITY
STABILITY
with a possible third dimension :
CONTROLLABILITY
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Module 2565 B2.2.46
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Attribution Theory
WEINER’S MODEL
LOCUS OF CAUSALITY
– is the performance outcome caused by
•
INTERNAL factors
– under the control of the performer
– ability / effort
•
EXTERNAL factors
– beyond the control of the performer
– task difficulty / luck
•
ABILITY
– the extent of the performer’s
capacity to cope with a sporting task
EFFORT
– the amount of mental and physical
effort the performer gives to the task
•
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STABILITY
– is the performance outcome caused
by
• STABLE factors
– fixed factors which don’t change
with time
– ability / task difficulty
• UNSTABLE factors
– factors which can vary with time
– effort / luck
•
•
TASK DIFFICULTY
– the extent of the problems posed
by the task including the strength of
the opposition
LUCK
– factors attributable to chance
– such as the weather or the state of
the pitch
Module 2565 B2.2.47
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Attribution Theory
ATTRIBUTION
SUCCESS
• explained by internal attributions
LOW ACHIEVERS
• attribute success to external
factors
• and attribute failure to internal
factors
FAILURE
• explained by external attributions
FUTURE EXPECTATIONS
• related to stability
• if we attribute success to stable factors
• or if we attribute failure to stable factors
• then we expect the same next time
HIGH ACHIEVERS
• attribute success to internal factors
• and attribute failure to external factors
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FEELINGS ABOUT SPORT
• attributions affect
– pride
– satisfaction
– expectancy
– learned helplessness
– avoidance
Module 2565 B2.2.48
Attribution Theory
THE ATTRIBUTION PROCESS
success
OUTCOME
internal
external
stable
unstable
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
failure
controlled
uncontrolled
ATTRIBUTION
specific
global
intentional
unintentional
future failure
EXPECTANCY
future success
pride
EMOTIONS
satisfaction
attribution of
success to
internal
stable factors
MASTERY
ORIENTATION
attribution of
failure to
external
unstable factors
drive to
succeed
DECISIONS
ABOUT
PARTICIPATION
lack of
motivation
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LEARNED
HELPLESSNESS
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motivation
continuation
reinforced
failure
Module 2565 B2.2.49
OCR A Level Physical Education A 7875
Attribution Theory
LEARNED HELPLESSNESS (LH)
LEARNED HELPLESSNESS
• a belief acquired over time
• that one has no control over events
• that failure is inevitable
• a feeling of hopelessness
GLOBAL LH
• a person attributes failure to internal /
stable factors
• applied to all sports
• ‘I am useless at all sports’
ATTRIBUTION RETRAINING
• low achievers need to learn to
attribute success
• and failure to the same reasons
• as high achievers
• success to stable factors
• failure to unstable factors
SPECIFIC LH
• a person attributes difficulties to
internal / stable factors
• applied to one specific sport
• ‘I am good at soccer but hopeless at
racquet games’
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Module 2565 B2.2.50