Chapter 3 Infancy and
Childhood
Review
Process of fitting objects and experiences
into your mental representation of the
world.
What is Assimilation?
Adjusting your conceptual framework of the
world to fit newly observed events and
experiences.
What is Accommodation?
Child’s inability to understand another
person’s perspective.
What is Egocentric?
The process of learning the rules of behavior
of one’s culture.
What is Socialization?
Child’s play involving the assumption of
adult roles.
What is Role Taking?
An infant’s response in turning toward the
source of touching anywhere near his or
her mouth.
What is Rooting Reflex?
The processes according to Sigmund Freud,
of redirecting sexual impulses into learning
tasks.
What is Sublimation?
Conceptual framework used to make sense
of the world.
What is a Schema?
The principle that a given quantity does not
change when its appearance changes.
What is conservation?
A common reaction among infants when the
mother is absent.
What is separation anxiety?
When a child is able to picture things in their
minds.
What is representational thought?
In Harlow’s surrogate mother experiment,
young monkeys chose the cloth mother
out of their need for
a. Food
b. Object permanence
c. Imprinting
d. Physical contact comfort
Answer: D
Physical Contact Comfort
During this stage (as described by Piaget),
children develop the ability to use logical
schemas.
a. Sensorimotor
b. Preoperational
c. Concrete operational
d. Formal operations
Answer: C
Concrete Operational
During this stage of psychosexual
development, children push sexual desires
into the background and become involved
in exploring the world and learning new
skills.
What is the Latency Stage?
According to Erikson, this plays an important
role in human development.
a. Physical contact
b. Cognitive abilities
c. Social approval
d. stress
Answer: C
What is Social Approval?
Which parenting style allows children and
adolescents to participate in decisions that
affect their lives?
What is Democratic or Authoritative family?
The internally programmed growth of a child
is called this.
What is maturation?
If a child says, “Mommy, I hungry,” the child
is using this type of speech.
What is telegraphic speech?
Infants begin to form an emotional
attachment to their mothers or a
surrogate at __.
a. Birth
b. About 3 months
c. About 6 months
d. About 1 year
This psychologist studied the effects of
imprinting on baby geese.
Who is Konrad Lorenz?
There is a heating duct above an infant’s
head. The infant is startled in bed when
the noisy heater kicks on. How will the
infant most likely respond?
a. Rooting reflex
b. Moro reflex
c. Babinski reflex
d. Grasping reflex
B - Moro reflex.
At birth, the length of most infants is
a. 12 to 16 inches
b. 20 to 24 inches
c. 18 to 22 inches
d. Less than 12 inches
C - 18 to 22 inches
The rules for arranging language symbols to
produce new meaning are called
a. Syntax
b. Grammar
c. Telegraphic speech
d. None of the above
B -- Grammar
A person’s behavior usually develops as a
result of
a. Attitudes only
b. Heredity only
c. Environment only
d. Both heredity and environment
D - both heredity and environment
The study of changes that occur as an
individual matures.
Developmental Psychology
Which psychologist do many consider the
greatest child psychologist of the twentieth
century?
Jean Piaget
Identify the three different methods of
developmental research!
Longitudinal
Cross-Sectional
Cross-Sequential
Specific time in development when certain
skills or abilities are most easily learned.
Critical period
What apparatus was used to determine if
infants had developed depth perception.
The Visual Cliff
According to Kohlberg, what influences
moral development?
a. Cognitive development
b. Emotional development
c. Perceptual development
d. A positive attitude
A - Cognitive Development
What would Erik Erikson call a positive
outcome of each state of social
development?
A Virtue
Erik Erikson believed that each stage of a
person’s life is characterized by a different
psychological crisis that must be resolved
before the person can successfully
progress to the next stage. If a person
does not resolve a crisis, there is a
negative outcome. What did Erikson call a
negative outcome?
Maladaptation
By what age have most young infants
developed depth perception?
6 months
In this type of parenting style, the children
and adolescents have the final say.
Permissive or Laissez-faire.
For Freud, personality development is
essentially complete as we enter
_____________.
Adolescence.
First stage of Erikson’s Psychosocial
Development.
Trust v. Mistrust
A response to a touch on the bottom of the
foot, the infant’s toes will splay outward
and then curl in.
Babinski Reflex
The belief that a car moves because you are
riding in it shows ___thinking.
Egocentric
What is the final stage of Piaget’s Stages of
Cognitive Development? This stage, said
Piaget, marks the beginning of abstract
reasoning.
Formal Operations Stage