Metodologi Penelitian
September 2011
Magister Teknik Elektro
Universitas Udayana
1/23
• What is research?
• What is methodology?
• What is research method?
• What is scientific research?
• What is research methodology?
• Etc …
2/23
• Research
– a search for knowledge
– a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a
specific topic
– An art of scientific investigation
– The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English: “a careful investigation or
inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of
knowledge.
– Redman and Mory define research as a “systematized effort to gain
new knowledge.
– A movement from the known to the unknown. It is actually a
voyage of discovery.
• This inquisitiveness (curiosity) is the mother of all
knowledge;
• Research is an academic activity and as such the
term should be used in a technical sense
3/23
• According to Clifford Woody
– research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating
hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and
evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and
at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they
fit the formulating hypothesis.
• D. Slesinger and M. Stephenson in the
Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences
– “the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of
generalising to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that
knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art.
• Research is, thus,
– an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making
for its advancement. It is the pursuit of truth with the help of study,
observation, comparison and experiment
4/23
• Objectives of Research
• To discover answers to questions through the application of
scientific procedures
• To find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been
discovered as yet
• To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new
insights into it (studies with this object in view are termed as
exploratory or formulative research studies);
• To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular
individual, situation or a group (studies with this object in view
are known as descriptive research studies);
• To determine the frequency with which something occurs or
with which it is associated with something else (studies with
this object in view are known as diagnostic research studies);
• To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables
(such studies are known as hypothesis-testing research
studies)
5/23
• Motives for doing research
•Desire to get a research degree along with its
consequential benefits;
•Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved
problems, i.e., concern over practical problems
initiates research;
•Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative
work;
•Desire to be of service to society;
•Desire to get respectability
6/23
• The basic types of research
– Descriptive vs. Analytical:
• Descriptive Research
– includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different kinds.
– The major purpose is description of the state of affairs as it exists
at present.
– The main characteristic:
» the researcher has no control over the variables; he can only
report what has happened or what is happening.
» the researcher seeks to measure such items as, for example,
frequency of shopping, preferences of people, or similar
data.
» to discover causes even when they cannot control the
variables.
» Survey methods of all kinds, including comparative and
correlational methods.
• In analytical research:
– the researcher has to use facts or information already available,
and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material
7/23
• Applied vs. Fundamental: Research can either be
applied (or action) research or fundamental (to
basic or pure) research.
– Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate
problem facing a society or an industrial/business organization
• Facing a concrete social or business problem
• to identify social, economic or political trends that may affect a
particular institution
• the central aim of applied research is to discover a solution for
some pressing practical problem
– fundamental research is mainly concerned with generalisations
and with the formulation of a theory
• “Gathering knowledge for knowledge’s sake is termed ‘pure’ or
‘basic’ research.
• ”Research concerning some natural phenomenon or relating to
pure mathematics
8/23
• Quantitative vs. Qualitative:
– Quantitative research
• Based on the measurement of quantity or amount.
• It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of
quantity.
– Qualitative research
• concerned with qualitative phenomenon
– For instance, when we are interested in investigating the reasons for
human behaviour (i.e., why people think or do certain things), we quite
often talk of ‘Motivation Research’, an important type of qualitative
research.
• Aims at discovering the underlying motives and desires, using in depth
interviews
• Other techniques: word association tests, sentence completion tests,
story completion tests and similar other projective techniques.
• Attitude or opinion research i.e., research designed to find out how
people feel or what they think about a particular subject or institution
• important in the behavioural sciences where the aim is to discover the
underlying motives of human behaviour. Through such research we
can analyse the various factors which motivate people to behave in a
particular manner or which make people like or dislike a particular
thing.
9/23
• Conceptual research
– that related to some abstract idea(s) or theory
– It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to
reinterpret existing ones.
• Empirical research
– Relies on experience or observation alone, often without due regard for system
and theory
– It is data-based research, coming up with conclusions which are capable of
being verified by observation or experiment.
– it is necessary to get at facts firsthand, at their source, and actively to go about
doing certain things to stimulate the production of desired information.
– The researcher must first provide himself with a working hypothesis or guess
as to the probable results. He then works to get enough facts (data) to prove or
disprove his hypothesis. He then sets up experimental designs which he thinks
will manipulate the persons or the materials concerned so as to bring forth the
desired information. Such research is thus characterised by the experimenter’s
control over the variables under study and his deliberate manipulation of one of
them to study its effects.
10/23
• Some Other Types of Research:
• based on either the purpose of research, or the time required to
accomplish research, on the environment in which research is done,
• or on the basis of some other similar factor.
– one-time research or longitudinal research
• One-time research: the research is confined to a single time-period,
• Longitudinal research: the research is carried on over several timeperiods.
– field-setting research or laboratory research or simulation research, depending
upon the environment in which it is to be carried out
– clinical or diagnostic research
• Such research follow case-study methods or in depth approaches to
reach the basic causal relations.
• Such studies usually go deep into the causes of things or events that
interest us, using very small samples and very deep probing data
gathering devices.
– The research may be exploratory or it may be formalized
• The objective of exploratory research is the development of
hypotheses rather than their testing
• Formalized research studies are those with substantial structure and
with specific hypotheses to be tested.
11/23
– Historical research
•utilizes historical sources like documents, remains,
etc. to study events or ideas of the past, including
the philosophy of persons and groups at any remote
point of time
– Conclusion oriented research
•a researcher is free to pick up a problem, redesign
the enquiry as he proceeds and is prepared to
conceptualize as he wishes.
– Decision-oriented research
•the need of a decision maker and the researcher in
this case is not free to embark upon research
according to his own inclination.
– Operations research is an example of decision oriented
research since it is a scientific method of providing
executive departments with a quantitative basis for
decisions regarding operations under their control.
12/23
• Research Approaches: quantitative approach and the
qualitative approach
• Quantitative approach
– involves the generation of data in quantitative form which can be subjected to
rigorous quantitative analysis in a formal and rigid fashion.
– It can be further sub-classified into inferential, experimental and simulation
approaches to research.
• The purpose of inferential approach to research is to form a data base
from which to infer characteristics or relationships of population. This
usually means survey research where a sample of population is
studied (questioned or observed) to determine its characteristics, and
it is then inferred that the population has the same characteristics.
• Experimental approach is characterised by much greater control over
the research environment and in this case some variables are
manipulated to observe their effect on other variables.
• Simulation approach involves the construction of an artificial
environment within which relevant information and data can be
generated. This permits an observation of the dynamic behaviour of a
system (or its sub-system) under controlled conditions.
13/23
• Qualitative approach to research is
concerned with subjective assessment of
attitudes, opinions and behaviour
•generates results either in non-quantitative form or
in the form which are not subjected to rigorous
quantitative analysis.
•Generally, the techniques of focus group interviews,
projective techniques and depth interviews are used.
All these are explained at length in chapters that
follow
14/23
• Significance of Research
• (i) investigation of economic structure through continual
compilation of facts;
• (ii) diagnosis of events that are taking place and the analysis of
the forces underlying them;
• (iii) the prognosis, i.e., the prediction of future developments.
– Research has its special significance in solving various
operational and planning problems of business and industry.
– Research is equally important for social scientists in studying
social relationships and in seeking answers to various social
problems.
15/23
• The significance of research
– (a) To those students
•to write a master’s or Ph.D. thesis, research may
mean a careerism or a way to attain a high position
in the social structure;
– (b) To professionals
•research may mean a source of livelihood;
– (c) To philosophers and thinkers
•research may mean the outlet for new ideas and
insights;
– (d) To literary men and women
•research may mean the development of new styles
and creative work;
– (e) To analysts and intellectuals
•research may mean the generalizations of new
theories.
16/23
• Research methods can be put into the
following three groups:
– 1. Those methods which are concerned with the
collection of data. These methods will be used where
the data already available are not sufficient to arrive at
the required solution;
– 2. Those statistical techniques which are used for
establishing relationships between the data and the
unknowns;
– 3. Those methods which are used to evaluate the
accuracy of the results obtained.
17/23
• Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the
research problem
– Research methodology has many dimensions
– Research methods do constitute a part of the research methodology.
– The scope of research methodology is wider than that of research methods.
• Thus, research methodology
– Not only about the research methods but also consider the logic behind the
methods we use in the context of our research study and explain why we are
using a particular method or technique and why we are not using others so that
research results are capable of being evaluated either by the researcher
himself or by others.
– For examples:
• Why a research study has been undertaken,
• How the research problem has been defined, in what way and why the
hypothesis has been formulated,
• what data have been collected and what particular method has been
adopted,
• why particular technique of analysing data has been used and a host
of similar other questions are usually answered when we talk of
research methodology concerning a research problem or study.
18/23
• The scientific method
–
–
–
–
1. It relies on empirical evidence;
2. It utilizes relevant concepts;
3. It is committed to only objective considerations;
4. It presupposes ethical neutrality, i.e., it aims at nothing but
making only adequate and correct statements about population
objects;
– 5. It results into probabilistic predictions;
– 6. Its methodology is made known to all concerned for critical
scrutiny are for use in testing the conclusions through replication;
– 7. It aims at formulating most general axioms or what can be
termed as scientific theories.
19/23
• Scientific method implies an objective, logical and
systematic method, i.e.,
– a method free from personal bias or prejudice,
– a method to ascertain demonstrable qualities of a phenomenon
capable of being verified,
– a method wherein the researcher is guided by the rules of logical
reasoning,
– a method wherein the investigation proceeds in an orderly
manner
– and a method that implies internal consistency.
20/23
Research Process
21/23
• Scientific research to satisfy the following criteria:
– 1. The purpose of the research should be clearly defined and common
concepts be used.
– 2. The research procedure used should be described in sufficient detail to
permit another researcher to repeat the research for further advancement,
keeping the continuity of what has already been attained.
– 3. The procedural design of the research should be carefully planned to yield
results that are as objective as possible.
– 4. The researcher should report with complete frankness, flaws in procedural
design and estimate their effects upon the findings.
– 5. The analysis of data should be sufficiently adequate to reveal its significance
and the methods of analysis used should be appropriate. The validity and
reliability of the data should be checked carefully.
– 6. Conclusions should be confined to those justified by the data of the research
and limited to those for which the data provide an adequate basis.
– 7. Greater confidence in research is warranted if the researcher is
experienced, has a good reputation in research and is a person of integrity.
22/23
• The qualities of a good research:
– 1. Good research is systematic:
• It means that research is structured with specified steps to be taken in
a specified sequence in accordance with the well defined set of rules.
Systematic characteristic of the research does not rule out creative
thinking but it certainly does reject the use of guessing and intuition in
arriving at conclusions.
– 2. Good research is logical:
• This implies that research is guided by the rules of logical reasoning
and the logical process of induction and deduction are of great value
in carrying out research. Induction is the process of reasoning from a
part to the whole whereas deduction is the process of reasoning from
some premise to a conclusion which follows from that very premise. In
fact, logical reasoning makes research more meaningful in the
context of decision making.
– 3. Good research is empirical:
• It implies that research is related basically to one or more aspects of a
real situation and deals with concrete data that provides a basis for
external validity to research results.
– 4. Good research is replicable:
• This characteristic allows research results to be verified by replicating
the study and thereby building a sound basis for decisions.
23/23
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