Introduction to Wellness, Fitness, and Lifestyle Management Chapter 1 Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 1 © McGraw-Hill Higher Education Wellness: The New Health Goal Health refers to the overall condition of a person’s body or mind and to the presence or absence of illness or injury Wellness refers to optimal health and vitality Health differs based on factors beyond your control, such as genes, age, and family history Wellness is determined by the decisions you make about the way you live Wellness: The New Health Goal Wellness = optimal health and vitality Dimensions of wellness Physical wellness Interpersonal and social wellness Emotional wellness Environmental, or planetary, wellness Spiritual wellness Intellectual wellness Wellness Continuum Figure 1.1 Wellness New Opportunities, New Responsibilities Infectious diseases, caused by invading microorganisms, were the leading causes of death a century ago Chronic diseases, caused by a variety of lifestyle and other factors, are the leading causes of death today Public Health Achievements Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 1 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Leading Causes of Death Overall Heart disease Cancer Stroke Chronic lower respiratory diseases (emphysema, chronic bronchitis) Unintentional injuries (accidents) Diabetes Leading Causes of Death by Age Ages 15–24 Unintentional injuries Homicide Suicide Cancer Heart disease Congenital defects HIV/AIDS Ages 25–44 Unintentional injuries Cancer Heart disease Suicide HIV/AIDS Homicide Chronic liver disease National Wellness Goals U.S. government’s national Healthy People initiative sets goals on 10-year agendas Major goals of Healthy People 2010: Increase quality and years of healthy life Eliminate health disparities among Americans Quantity vs. Quality of Life Dimensions of Diversity Gender Ethnicity Income Education Life Expectancy Source: National Center for Health Statistics Behaviors that Contribute to Wellness Be physically active Choose a healthy diet Maintain a healthy body weight Manage stress effectively Avoid tobacco and drug use and limit alcohol consumption Protect yourself from disease and injury Lifestyle and Wellness More time watching TV = increased risk of obesity and diabetes Lifestyle and Wellness Cigarette smoking = increased risk of lung cancer Lifestyle and Wellness Low intake of fruits and vegetables = increased risk of heart disease Lifestyle and Wellness Few healthy behaviors = increased risk of heart disease Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 1 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Benefits of Physical Activity Actual Causes of Death in the United States Smoking Diet and inactivity** Alcohol Microbial agents Toxic agents Motor vehicles Firearms Sexual behavior Illicit drug use 435,000 deaths per year 112,000 85,000 75,000 55,000 43,000 29,000 20,000 17,000 **Caclulation of the number of deaths due to poor diet and inactivity (obesity) is an area of ongoing controversy and research. Sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2005. Frequently Asked Questions About Calculating Obesity-Related Risk (http://www.cdc.gov/od/oc/media/pressrel/r050614.htm; retrieved June 28, 2005). Mokdad, A. H., et al. 2004. Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. Journal of the American Medical Association 291(10): 1238–1245. Other Factors in Wellness Heredity Put together a family health history Environment Health care Evaluating Sources of Health Information Go to the original source Watch for misleading language Distinguish between individual research reports and public health advice Remember that anecdotes are not facts Be skeptical and use your common sense Evaluating Sources of Health Information: Internet Resources What is the source of the information? Who is the author or sponsor of the site? How often is the site updated? What is the purpose of the page? Does the site promote particular products or procedures? Are there obvious reasons for bias? What do other sources say about the topic? Does the site conform to any set of guidelines or criteria for quality and accuracy? Reaching Wellness Through Lifestyle Management Getting started: Examine your current health habits Choose a target behavior—an isolated behavior selected as the object for a behavior change program Obtain information about your target behavior Find outside help if needed Building Motivation to Change Examine the pros and cons of change Boost self-efficacy—the belief in one’s ability to take action Locus of control: internal versus external Visualization and self-talk Role models and buddies Identify and overcome key barriers to change Enhancing Your Readiness to Change Precontemplation—no intention of changing Contemplation—intending to take action within 6 months Preparation—planning to act within a month Action—outwardly changing behavior Maintenance—successful behavior change for 6 months or more Termination Create a Behavior Change Plan 1. Monitor your target behavior and gather data using a health journal. Create a Behavior Change Plan 2. Analyze the data you collect and identify patterns relating to your target behavior. 3. Set realistic, specific goals. Break your overall goal into smaller steps and goals. Create a Behavior Change Plan 4. Devise a strategy or plan of action: Obtain information and supplies Modify your environment Reward yourself Involve the people around you Plan ahead for challenging situations 5. Make a personal contract Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 1 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Behavior Change Contract Putting Your Plan into Action Commitment Strategies from behavior change plan Belief that you are the “boss” Change-friendly environment Support Rewards Congratulate yourself Staying With It Social influences Levels of motivation and commitment Choice of techniques and level of effort Stress barrier Procrastinating, rationalizing, and blaming Being Fit and Well for Life First attempts may only involve the planning stage Need to develop certain skills Do not expect to master everything quickly and with ease Wellness Worksheet Assignment Wellness Worksheets can be accessed online at www.mhhe.com/fahey8e 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the website above, click on “student edition” at the bottom left column. Click on “wellness worksheets” Click on “126 Wellness Worksheets are available online” in the middle of the page. Click on “1: Evaluate Your Lifestyle” and complete the worksheet. Print out the completed worksheet and submit on Wednesday, August 24th, 2011. Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 1 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.