Introduction to Wellness,
Fitness, and Lifestyle
Management
Chapter 1
Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 1
© McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Wellness: The New Health Goal
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Health refers to the overall condition of a
person’s body or mind and to the presence or
absence of illness or injury
Wellness refers to optimal health and vitality
Health differs based on factors beyond your
control, such as genes, age, and family history
Wellness is determined by the decisions you
make about the way you live
Wellness: The New Health Goal
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Wellness = optimal health and vitality
Dimensions of wellness
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Physical wellness
Interpersonal and social wellness
Emotional wellness
Environmental, or planetary, wellness
Spiritual wellness
Intellectual wellness
Wellness Continuum
Figure 1.1
Wellness
New Opportunities, New
Responsibilities
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Infectious diseases, caused by invading
microorganisms, were the leading causes
of death a century ago
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Chronic diseases, caused by a variety of
lifestyle and other factors, are the leading
causes of death today
Public Health Achievements
Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 1
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Leading Causes of Death Overall
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Heart disease
Cancer
Stroke
Chronic lower respiratory diseases
(emphysema, chronic bronchitis)
Unintentional injuries (accidents)
Diabetes
Leading Causes of Death by Age
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Ages 15–24
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Unintentional injuries
Homicide
Suicide
Cancer
Heart disease
Congenital defects
HIV/AIDS
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Ages 25–44
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Unintentional injuries
Cancer
Heart disease
Suicide
HIV/AIDS
Homicide
Chronic liver disease
National Wellness Goals
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U.S. government’s national Healthy
People initiative sets goals on 10-year
agendas
Major goals of Healthy People 2010:
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Increase quality and years of healthy life
Eliminate health disparities among Americans
Quantity vs. Quality of Life
Dimensions of Diversity
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Gender
Ethnicity
Income
Education
Life Expectancy
Source: National Center for Health
Statistics
Behaviors that Contribute to Wellness
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Be physically active
Choose a healthy diet
Maintain a healthy body weight
Manage stress effectively
Avoid tobacco and drug use and limit
alcohol consumption
Protect yourself from disease and injury
Lifestyle and Wellness
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More time watching TV = increased risk of obesity
and diabetes
Lifestyle and Wellness
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Cigarette smoking = increased risk of lung cancer
Lifestyle and Wellness
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Low intake of
fruits and
vegetables =
increased risk of
heart disease
Lifestyle and Wellness
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Few healthy behaviors = increased risk of
heart disease
Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 1
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Benefits of Physical Activity
Actual Causes of Death in the
United States
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Smoking
Diet and inactivity**
Alcohol
Microbial agents
Toxic agents
Motor vehicles
Firearms
Sexual behavior
Illicit drug use
435,000 deaths per year
112,000
85,000
75,000
55,000
43,000
29,000
20,000
17,000
**Caclulation of the number of deaths due to poor diet and inactivity (obesity) is an area of ongoing controversy and research.
Sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2005. Frequently Asked Questions About Calculating Obesity-Related Risk
(http://www.cdc.gov/od/oc/media/pressrel/r050614.htm; retrieved June 28, 2005). Mokdad, A. H., et al. 2004. Actual causes of death in the United
States, 2000. Journal of the American Medical Association 291(10): 1238–1245.
Other Factors in Wellness
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Heredity
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Put together a family health history
Environment
Health care
Evaluating Sources of Health
Information
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Go to the original source
Watch for misleading language
Distinguish between individual research
reports and public health advice
Remember that anecdotes are not facts
Be skeptical and use your common sense
Evaluating Sources of Health
Information: Internet Resources
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What is the source of the information?
Who is the author or sponsor of the site?
How often is the site updated?
What is the purpose of the page? Does the site
promote particular products or procedures? Are
there obvious reasons for bias?
What do other sources say about the topic?
Does the site conform to any set of guidelines or
criteria for quality and accuracy?
Reaching Wellness Through
Lifestyle Management
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Getting started:
 Examine your current health habits
 Choose a target behavior—an isolated
behavior selected as the object for a
behavior change program
 Obtain information about your target
behavior
 Find outside help if needed
Building Motivation to Change
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Examine the pros and cons of change
Boost self-efficacy—the belief in one’s
ability to take action
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Locus of control: internal versus external
Visualization and self-talk
Role models and buddies
Identify and overcome key barriers to
change
Enhancing Your Readiness to
Change
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Precontemplation—no intention of changing
Contemplation—intending to take action
within 6 months
Preparation—planning to act within a month
Action—outwardly changing behavior
Maintenance—successful behavior change
for 6 months or more
Termination
Create a Behavior Change Plan
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1. Monitor your target behavior and gather data
using a health journal.
Create a Behavior Change Plan
2. Analyze the data you collect and identify
patterns relating to your target behavior.
3. Set realistic, specific goals. Break your
overall goal into smaller steps and goals.
Create a Behavior Change Plan
4. Devise a strategy or plan of action:
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Obtain information and supplies
Modify your environment
Reward yourself
Involve the people around you
Plan ahead for challenging situations
5. Make a personal contract
Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 1
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Behavior Change
Contract
Putting Your Plan into Action
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Commitment
Strategies from behavior change plan
Belief that you are the “boss”
Change-friendly environment
Support
Rewards
Congratulate yourself
Staying With It
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Social influences
Levels of motivation and commitment
Choice of techniques and level of effort
Stress barrier
Procrastinating, rationalizing, and blaming
Being Fit and Well for Life
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First attempts may only involve the
planning stage
Need to develop certain skills
Do not expect to master everything quickly
and with ease
Wellness Worksheet Assignment
Wellness Worksheets can be accessed online at
www.mhhe.com/fahey8e
1.
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4.
5.
From the website above, click on “student edition” at the bottom left
column.
Click on “wellness worksheets”
Click on “126 Wellness Worksheets are available online” in the
middle of the page.
Click on “1: Evaluate Your Lifestyle” and complete the worksheet.
Print out the completed worksheet and submit on Wednesday,
August 24th, 2011.
Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 1
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
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Introduction to Wellness, Fitness, and Lifestyle Management