Applied Child & Adolescent
Development
Emotional and Social Development in
Early Adulthood
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Emerging Adulthood
Multidimensional, multidirectional
Gradual transition from late teens until
early twenties
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exploring education, work, values,
relationships
few strict social expectations
attitudes and values broaden
Can explore in breadth and in depth
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Have Young Adults
Reached Adulthood?
Figure 14.1
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Dual-Cycle Model
in Early College Years
Cycle between making and
evaluating commitments
In-depth exploration and
certainty
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better social adjustment
better academic
adjustment
DigitalVision
Personal agency
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Emerging Adulthood and
Cultural Change, Variations
Rapid cultural change offers new challenges.
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entry-level jobs require more education
delays in financial independence
delays in career commitment
typical in wealthy nations
In developing nations, only for privileged
Unknown in traditional, rural-based nations
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Emerging Adulthood in
Collectivist Cultures, Low-SES
Collectivist
Low-SES
Social considerations
Role attainment as sign
of adulthood
Self-control
Emerging adulthood
limited or nonexistent
Floundering period
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unemployment
low-paying jobs
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Fostering Success
in Emerging Adulthood
Resilience
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cognitive attributes
emotional attributes
social attributes
social support
DigitalVision
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Erikson’s Theory:
Intimacy versus Isolation
Intimacy
Isolation
Making a permanent
Loneliness, self-absorption
commitment to intimate Hesitant to form close ties
partner
Fear of losing identity
Involves giving up some
 compete
new independence,
 reject differences
redefining identity
 threatened by closeness
Strong identity helps
Affects friendships, work
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Levinson’s Early Adult Season
Early adult transition
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dream
mentor
Early adulthood life structure
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men: “settling down”
women: split dreams
Age-30 transition
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reevaluate life structure
often focus on underdeveloped
aspects
can be time of crisis
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Vaillant’s Adaptation to Life
Twenties – intimacy concerns
Thirties – career consolidation
Forties – generativity
Fifties to Sixties – “keepers of
meaning”
Seventies – spiritual and
reflective
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Absolute Family
Social Clock
Age-graded expectations for life
events
Less rigid than in earlier generations
Following social clock lends
confidence, contributes to social
stability
Distress if not following or falling
behind
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Selecting a Mate
Physical proximity
Most select partners who are similar
Gender differences
women: intelligence, ambition,
financial status, morals
 men: attractiveness, domestic skills
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Childhood Attachment and
Adult Romantic Relationships
Attachment
History
Secure
Avoidant
Resistant
Working
Model
Adult
Relationships
comfortable with
intimacy; unafraid of
abandonment
trust, happiness,
friendship
stress independence,
mistrust, anxiety
about closeness
jealousy, emotional
distance, little physical
pleasure, unrealistic
beliefs
seek quick love,
complete merging
jealousy, desperation,
emotional highs and
lows
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Triangular Theory of Love
Three components
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intimacy
passion
commitment
Passionate love early;
companionate love later
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passion gradually fades while
intimacy, commitment grow
Cultural differences
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Absolute Family
Keeping Love Alive
 Make time for the
 Show interest in
relationship.
 Tell your partner you
love him/her.
 Be available when
your partner needs
you.
 Communicate
constructively about
problems.
important aspects of
your partner’s life.
 Confide in your partner.
 Forgive minor offenses.
 Try to understand
major offenses.
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Friendships in
Early Adulthood
Friends usually similar age, sex, SES
Common interests, experiences, needs
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add to pleasure of friendship
Enhance self-esteem, make life more
interesting
Trust, intimacy, and loyalty continue to be
important
Siblings often friends
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Gender and Friendship
Same-Sex
Friendships
Other-Sex
Friendships
Gender differences
Fewer, shorter-lasting
than same-sex

women’s more
intimate
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Individual differences
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longer friendships
more intimate
single people more
intimate with friends
educated, employed
women have most
Benefits to both genders
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men: opportunity for
expression
women: new views
Sexual attraction must be
considered.
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Factors in Loneliness
peaks in late teens, early twenties
 declines through seventies
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Age
separated, divorced, widowed
 uninvolved men
 immigrants to individualist from
collectivist cultures
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Circumstances
Personal
characteristics
socially anxious
 insecure models of attachment
 defeating behaviors, attitudes
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Loneliness and Emotional
Distress at Different Ages
Figure 14.2
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Family Life Cycle
Early adulthood
leaving home
 joining families in
marriage
 parenthood
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Late adulthood
retirement
 death of spouse
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Middle adulthood

launching children
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Leaving Home
Average age decreasing
 50% of 18- to 25-year-olds live with parent
 depart for education earlier, marriage later
 too early may be long-term disadvantage
Many return briefly
Culture, SES, ethnicity affect ability, interest in
leaving
Family relationships can improve.
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Trends in Marriage
Marrying later
Nearly 90% marry at least once
Fewer marriages

staying single, cohabiting, not
remarrying
Legalization of same-sex
marriage in some places
“Mixed” marriages increasingly
common
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Traditional and Egalitarian
Marriages
Traditional
Egalitarian
Clear division of roles
Partners as equals
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woman: cares for
husband, children,
home
man: head of
household, economic
support
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share authority
balance attention to
jobs, children, home,
spouse
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Gender and Housework
Figure 14.3
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Factors Related to
Marital Satisfaction
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 Family backgrounds
 Age at marriage
 Length of courtship
 Timing of first pregnancy
 Relationship to extended
family
 Financial and employment
status
 Family responsibilities
 Personality characteristics
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Partner Abuse
Men and women both become violent
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same-sex or other-sex partnerships
women more likely to get seriously injured
Violence–remorse cycles common
Factors include:
 personality
 developmental history
 family circumstances
 culture
Much treatment not very effective

need whole-family approach, alcohol treatment,
services for men
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Assaults Against Women
by Intimate Partners
Figure 14.4
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Trends in Having Children
In United States, fewer married
couples have children (70%)
mothers’ careers
 less social criticism
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Delay first child
Smaller numbers of children
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average of 2 or fewer
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Decision to Have Children
Advantages
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Disadvantages
Warmth and affection
Stimulation and fun
Seen as mature
community member
Carry on family name
Sense of
accomplishment
Decrease selfish nature
Family resource
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Loss of freedom
Financial strain
Role overload
Affect mother’s job
Imperfect world
Adds to worries
Reduced time with
partner
Loss of privacy
Fear of “bad” children
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Transition to Parenthood
Many profound changes
Roles often become more traditional.
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roles get less traditional with second
birth
Marriage can be strained.
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problems before children predict
problems after
sharing care predicts happiness
Later parenthood eases transition.
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couple’s groups, paid leave help, too
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Absolute Family
Parenting
Powerful source of adult
development
With young children
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FamilyLife
best parents work together as
coparenting team
challenges: few social supports;
hard to find child care
With adolescents
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brings sharp changes
challenges: negotiation of roles,
dip in marital satisfaction
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Parent Education
Parenting books,
magazines
Doctors
Social networks
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especially mothers
Classes
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Singlehood
Increasing
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One-third of males, one-fourth of females
8-10% single for life
Gender differences
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women more likely to stay single
more high-SES women,
low-SES men single after age 30
Ethnic differences
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African Americans single longer
Advantages and disadvantages
Stressful periods
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late twenties
mid-thirties for women
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Teens and Young Adults
Cohabitation
Unmarried, sexually intimate, living together
Increasing
Can be preparation for marriage
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North Americans who cohabit before marriage more
likely to divorce
Can be alternative to marriage
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more accepted in Western Europe
Cohabiting gay and lesbian couples report strong
commitment.
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Childlessness
Involuntary
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no parenthood partner
infertile
may be dissatisfied
Voluntary
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Lovers
usually college-educated, committed to
prestigious jobs
About 20% of women
Negative stereotypes weakening
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Divorce Rates
Stabilized since 1980s
In U.S., about 45%

about 10% higher for
remarriages soon after
first marriage
First seven years, midlife
most common times

young and adolescent
children involved
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Lovers
Causes and Factors
in Divorce
Ineffective problem solving
Separate lives
Major problems: infidelity, money issues,
substance abuse
Background factors: age,
religion, prior divorce,
family background
SES
Gender roles, expectations
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Consequences of Divorce
Major change of life and self
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opportunities for positive and negative change
Immediate consequences generally subside in
2 years
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disrupted social networks, support
increased anxiety, depression, impulsive behavior
traditional women, noncustodial fathers may have
more problems
New partner helps satisfaction

more important to men
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Remarriage After Divorce
Most remarry within 4 years of divorce
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men sooner than women
Vulnerable to breakup
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reasons for marriage
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often too pragmatic
carry over negative patterns
view divorce as acceptable resolution
stepfamily stress
Takes 3–5 years to blend new family
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education, couples and family counseling can help
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Variant Styles of Parenthood
Stepparenting
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higher levels of tension, disagreement
stepmothers most likely to experience conflict
higher divorce rates
Never-married single parents
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affects about 10% of U.S. children
largest group is young African-American women
often rely on extended family
children lacking father’s involvement fare poorly
Gay and lesbian parents
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heterosexual partner, adoption, assisted reproduction
children similar to peers in cognitive measures
may build “families of choice”
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Career Development
in Early Adulthood
Disappointment near start of
career common
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many job changes in twenties
most settle in after evaluation
and adjustment
Adjust expectations to
opportunities to advance
Disabilities
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fewer opportunities, more work
disengagement
Self-efficacy, mentoring affect
adjustment, success
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Challenges to Women’s
Career Development
Discontinuous employment
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leave for child rearing, family care
hinders advancement
Concentration in low-paying, low-advancement
jobs
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contributes to salary gap
Low self-efficacy for male-dominated fields
Gender stereotyping
Few mentors
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Challenges to Ethnic Minorities’
Career Development
Racial bias in workplace still remains.
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harder to find job
harder to advance
Ethnic minority women face combined
discrimination.
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Successful women have high selfefficacy.
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Hiring Bias
Figure 14.5
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Work–Family Balance
Dual-earner marriages are the dominant
family form.
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most also parents
Role overload is a common problem.
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especially for women in low-status jobs
Workplace supports can help.
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time flexibility
Effective balancing benefits home and work.
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Development Through the Lifespan