UNDERSTANDING SELF MOTIVATED
LEARNING TOWARDS FORMAL
LIFELONG LEARNING EDUCATION
NORFADZILAH ABD RAZAK
NOOR AZLINA MOHAMAD YUNUS
NOR LELA AHMAD
FACULTY BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA,
CAMPUS PUNCAK ALAM, SELANGOR,
MALAYSIA
INTRODUCTION
Lifelong learning education is a phenomenon that
challenges to improve the employee’s quality of
work and life. In essence, formal lifelong learning is
activities that take place in formal educational
institutions that leads to some form of accreditation
or qualification.
 Formal
learning is hierarchically structured,
chronologically graded educational system and
moving from primary school level through the
university. In addition to general academic studies,
a variety of specialized programs and institutions
for full-time technical and professional training are
provided to employees.

INTRODUCTION

The importance of formal lifelong learning in
organizational context, is to improve employees
career future development, enhances social
inclusion,
active
citizenship,
personal
development, and competitiveness. However, the
issues that need to be addressed in the
discussion of formal lifelong learning is the lack of
awareness of formal lifelong learning education
and low self learning motivation for employees to
embark on formal lifelong learning.
ISSUES IN LIFELONG LEARNING

Thus, it is critical in ensuring the success of the
nation’s economic development and produce
quality labor force. According to the New National
Agenda, lifelong learning should be in the
mainstream for education systems in achieving
the national and human capital development. This
explains that enhancing education through
lifelong learning will improve the quality of
working professionals.
ISSUES IN LIFELONG LEARNING

One of the main issues of lifelong learning is
lacking of awareness and participation
from people. People do not realize the
advantages and opportunities available for them
as embark on lifelong learning.

People are not exposed to the opportunity and the
benefit they will gain from continuing their study.
They have the mindset that education end when they
graduated and get a job after they are finished with
their study.
ISSUES IN LIFELONG LEARNING

Next is inadequate financial support. People
perceived that financial constrain is one of the
challenges for people to embark on their lifelong
journey. Some of them believe it is unaffordable
to pay the fees of study and liable for the
expenses during their studied.

More than that, there are limitations such as
scholarship and student loan offered for them. This
has prevented many individuals from pursuing their
interest in lifelong learning education.
ISSUES IN LIFELONG LEARNING

Situational or environment that enforce or drive
people to embark on this journey.
 institutional that closely related to those
practices and procedures that exclude or
discourage adults from participating in
organized learning activities;
 physical and material barriers such as costs
of learning includes of tuition fees, indirect
transport, books, equipment, childcare, lack
of time, and lack of information
 structural barriers such as lack of appropriate
education or training opportunities, and
constraints of the benefit system.
ISSUES IN LIFELONG LEARNING

dispositions related to the attitudes and
self-perceptions about oneself as a learner
 negative attitudes to learning, lack of
confidence or lack of motivation given
reasons why people, lack of awareness and
participate in lifelong learning education.
 The mental barriers mean people had set in
their mind set such as poor family culture of
learning, low aspiration, low self-esteem, and
bad childhood experience of learning as the
barriers for them to further their study.
OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The objective of this study is to understand
the fundamental reasons or influences for
people to embark on the lifelong learning
education.
 This study ideally to analyze the theory
and literature review that related to forces
of lifelong learning education among the
adults.

NATURE OF FORMAL LEARNING IN
MALAYSIA
In Malaysia context, there are four institutions of
formal learning for lifelong learning.
 There are polytechnics,
 community colleges, public university,
 open and
 distance learning institution.
 It takes different level of formal recognition that
includes certificates, diplomas at polytechnics
and community colleges.
 The program either can be short course or full
courses to be offered to the individual.

ADULT LEARNING THEORY
MOTIVATION THEORY

Theory of self determination initially
determines the quality of a person’s motivation to
predict the outcomes such as psychological health
and well-being, effective performance, creative
problem solving, and deep or conceptual learning.
MOTIVATION THEORY

Extrinsic motivation
 Extrinsic force an individual to achieve their own
interest rather than full satisfaction with their
performance. Hence, satisfaction is not a result of
the activity itself, but rather from the extrinsic
consequences to which the activity leads. Extrinsic
motivation requires tangible or verbal rewards.
 The actions that cause the attainment of rewards
that are externally imposed, including material
possessions, salary, additional bonuses, feedback
and evaluations from others, fringe benefits, and
prestige.
MOTIVATION THEORY

Intrinsic motivation
 Intrinsic motivation is defined as the doing of
an activity for its inherent satisfaction rather
than for some separable consequence. When
intrinsically motivated, a person is moved to
act for the fun or challenge entailed rather than
because of external products, pressures or
reward.
 intrinsic motivation is concern to individual
internal interest to be meaningful in their life. It
focuses to an individual value and belief.
Intrinsic motivation is related to the emotional,
feeling of satisfaction, belongliness, or
relationship oriented.
REWARDS
Fundamental reward defined as any strengthened
behaviors followed immediately by a positive reinforce.
 Positive reinforce means the effort of an individual to
achieve the desired outcomes.
 the relation of employees’ effort is increased when
rewards are offered. The rewards directly increase and
influence individual behavior to take a particular action
to achieve the outcomes.
 The importance of rewards is to recognize excellent
job performance, provide feedback, make it easier to
get work done, encourage employees to be more
productive and help management achieve their goal

CONCLUSION

As a conclusion, lifelong learning is defined as a continuous learning for
adult with purpose to improve their skill, knowledge and ability. Moreover,
gain a new experience and for career development that is required by the
organization.

Recently, the issues of lifelong learning become the challenges in the
workplace. It seems challenges the human capitals that are more
knowledgeable and expert to be a valuable asset to organize. The highest
educational qualification of individual in an organization, there is more
demand on the workforce.

Thus, lifelong learning is a platform and strategy for an individual is
marketable in the workplaces. However, this study identified several
constraints to Malaysia’s adult or employees to embark on lifelong learning.

Thus, this study recommend in the future to investigate with involved
participation of adult employees to investigate the actual factors influencing
formal lifelong learning. The discussion can use the theory used in this study
to extend the finding to understand the factors to determine the lifelong
learning
THANK YOU
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understanding self motivated learning toward formal lifelong