The Space Show
29 September, 2011
Critical Human Factors in a
Manned Martian Mission…
(draft outline)
UND Space Studies
V. Y. Rygalov, Ph.D., Math & Physical Sciences, Biophysics
Associate Professor, ED & HF
Agenda Outline
Earth vs. Space Environments
 Life Support in Space

 PLSS
 Physiological & Medical Aspects
 Individual & Group Psychology…


Mission Profiles
Mission Strategy
 The Split-Mission Approach
 ISRU & Hybrid LS

Motivation for Martian Mission…
Earth ‘Biosphere’

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Gravity fields (g  9.81 m/s2)
Magnetosphere
Atmosphere (N2~78%; O2~21%; CO2; O+3, etc.)
Pressure (101.1kPa=1atm, at sea level)
Illumination (1387W/m2; day/night cycle)
Surface temperatures: ~ -80OC to +60OC… local variations…
Seasonal climate changes… geographical variations…
Day/night temperature variations are rarely  10 15OC
Global material circulation and gradients:
water, O2/CO2, tectonic/sedimentation (minerals)
Earth ‘Biosphere’

Global material circulation and gradients:
water, O2/CO2, tectonic/sedimentation (minerals)
 Human populations are distributed in the zones
with high material & energy gradients (not circulation!)
 To minimize energy for food collection & environmental control
 Populations are tied up to the sources of energy
for environmental control

Ecological processes (food pyramids…)
 We are not at the top of food pyramids naturally
 By variations of local environments we can get to the top…

Social environments…
 Social environments are sequence of continuous
efforts to survive in ‘hostile environment’ of Earth
Human Physiology…
‘Respiratory Machines…’ (O2/CO2…)
 Bio – Chemical reactors

 CVS +… + Homeostasis (adaptation to environment)

Operational Elements
Skeleton
Muscles

Control Systems
CNS (environment monitoring & orientation)
Perception & Cognition

Technological Interfaces (survival & comfort)
Industry/Machines & Tools… balance environment…
Environments on the way to Mars…

Earth surface (No problem… practically…)
 Risk to human life… Minimal…

Extraterrestrial bodies (Mars)
 Risk… Low & depends on hardware (technologies)…

In-Space Environments
 Open Space: Risk… Intermediate
 Space Capsule: Risk… Intermediate - Low…

Active Space Environments (Transitional…)
 Surface of Earth to near Earth…
 Surface of Mars to near Mars
 Risk… High… Technologies work at the limits…
Open (interplanetary…) space environment
0 – g & G - Forces
 Radiation (ionizing, UV, solar flares…)
 Thermal variations
 Debris (asteroids, meteoroids, man-made)
 Vacuum

 No air…
 Lack of water… No ecology (food?...)
Physiology alterations (SAS…  0 - g)
 Medical issues
 Material degradations (O-, radiation…)

 Durations… Technological Instabilities…
Planetary Environment (Mars):
• 3.73 m*s-2 = 38% of Earth gravity
• E/magnetic radiation (light) ~ 615718W/m2
• Pressure ~ 0.7kPa (wind 60-80 m/s)
• Dust- and thunder-storms
• Temperature ~ 130K to 300K
• UV radiation ~ 10 W/m2
• Estimated Dose Equivalent during Martian
mission:
Earth  Mars ~ 0.32 Sv
30 days on Mars ~ 0.023 Sv
Mars  Earth ~ 0.35 Sv
Van Allen Belts < 0.04 Sv
Total: 0.742 Sv compare to 0.0034 Sv on Earth (same time)
• Magnetic field can not protect outer Martian
atmosphere from GCR and SCR (SPE)

PLSS
Life Support in Space…
 O2 supply and CO2 removal
 Water
 Food
Environmental parameters control
 Wastes processing (re-cycling)
 Countermeasures to prevent SAS…
 Psychology of long-term confinement
 ‘Habitability’ Concept

 Hygienic & Medical issues…
 Duration
Human Primary Life Support Requirements:
Inputs
Daily
Req.
Oxygen
Food
Water
Outputs
(% total
mass)
0.83 kg
0.62 kg
3.56 kg
2.7%
2.0%
11.4%
(drink and
food prep.)
Water
26.0 kg
(hygiene, flush
laundry, dishes)
83.9%
Daily
Carbon 1.00 kg
dioxide
Metabolic 0.11 kg
solids
Water
29.95 kg
(metabolic / urine
(hygiene / flush
(laundry / dish
(latent
TOTAL 31.0 kg
(% total
mass)
3.2%
0.35%
96.5%
12.3%)
24.7%)
55.7%)
3.6%)
TOTAL 31.0 kg
Source: NASA SPP 30262 Space Station ECLSS Architectural Control Document
Food assumed to be dry except for chemically-bound water.
Life Support Approaches
LS Function
Comments
Supply
Physical/
Chemical
Bio/
Regenerative
+
+
+
+
Critical variable
Water
+
+
Food
+
- ???
+
Critical variable
Psychology
-, ?
-, ?
+
Required for long/term
mission
Autonomy
-,+ ?
-,+ ?
+
Required for long/term
mission
Reliability
Technical/
Engineering
Technical/
Engineering
Technical/
Engineering +
Bio(eco)logical
Required for all missions
(Methods of estimates?)
Comments
LSS is not
heavy;
short
distances
LSS is heavier;
mission
duration is
longer
LSS is heavy;
long/term
space missions
Air
Critical variable
CELSS: Plants for Human Life Support…
HUMANS
Metabolic
Energy
food
(CH2O) + O2
CO2 + H2O
Clean Water
Waste Water
Light
food
(CH2O) + O2
CO2 + H2O
Clean Water
Waste Water
PLANTS
Some Findings from NASA Testing
 Closed System Studies:
How Dr Rygalov thought it should work?...
What the LPG design became…finally
Send to Mars???
More ideas for Greenhouses
More Greenhouses
Copyright Sadler Machine Company 99
Lessons learned (ground tests)

ESM analysis shows
 Bio-regenerative LS becomes competitive for P/C
only with mission durations longer than 1.98 – 2.73
years = 723 – 997 days (reduced gravity is included)

Bio-regenerative LSS are inherently unstable
 ‘Error’ accumulations happen in ~ 180 days
 Spare parts & buffer materials storage
 LSS environment changes
 Materials leaching, deposits and dead-locks
 Algorithm of Stability Control ?... Technology?
 Mission autonomy has to be up to the mission
duration…
Role of Bioregenerative Components
for Future Missions
Short Durations
Longer Durations
(early missions)
Autonomous
Colonies
Stowage and Physico-Chemical
Bioregenerative
Plant Growing Area
~1-5 m 2 total
~10-25 m 2 / person
~50 m 2 / person
Constraints for Crop Production on Mars:
(“Economics” of Life Support)
Energy Requirements
 System Mass
 System Volume
 Crew Time
 System Reliability…
 ISRU technologies ?...

These Apply for All Life
Support Technologies
For Plants, Lighting Dominates These Costs !

CES have never been tested in space
Physiological dynamics in space
SMS (few days syndrome)
 Body liquids re-distribution
 Cardio – Vascular de-conditioning
 Muscles & Bones structural integrity losses
 Blood components

 RBC ~ Space Anemia…
 WBC ~ dynamics are not clear
Immune System (IS) alterations
Multiple Changes in 0 – gravity
Physiological & Medical Implications
Body liquid shift upward…
 Muscles weakening
 Bone de-mineralization and structural losses

 Ca+2 & Minerals balance disturbances
 Others
Des-orientation in space & time
 Cardio-vascular de-conditioning (OI)

 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G2uSsgOBHDI&feature=related

Radiation Doses
Multiple Physiological De-Conditioning in 0-Gravity
Human Physiology Changes in Micro-Gravity
15
10
% Changes from 1-g environment
5
Earth
0
Card Ind
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Fluids
Muscle
-5
Bone Mass
RBC
Immune
-10
NeuroVestib
-15
-20
-25
Tim e, m onth
Course of Re-adaptation to 1-g…
Physiologic Readaptation to 1-g Environment
20
10
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1-G
% Changes
-10
Clinical
Irreversible
Fluids
-20
CardioVasc
NeuroVest
RBC
-30
B-Mass
-40
-50
-60
Tim e, w eek
Psychology of Confinement: Motivation …
2 quarter…
4 quarter…
Artificial Control
0 quarter,
pre-mission
3 quarter…
1 quarter…
Fifth phase! ~ 2 weeks
before return…
Effects of Isolation & Confinement
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Long-Term Confined & Isolated Groups: space stations,
polar bases, remote terrains, high mountain expeditions,
submarines, “new artificial worlds” (Biosphere-2, BIOS-3,
“Mars500 ~ 500-700 days test”…)
Symptoms: boredom, restlessness, anxiety, depression,
headache, physical complaints, temporal & spatial
disorientation, irritability, anger, occasional hostility, sleep
disturbance…
Deficits in individual (feelings of incompleteness &
isolation) and group compatibility/performance
Symptoms increase over time in isolation…
Transcendent experiences (consciousness alterations)…
Effectiveness/Efficacy losses, mission failure, serious
survival problems… without external support
 Sensory deprivation…
Mission profile options

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Short – Stay Mission
Long – Stay Mission (minimum energy)
Long - Stay Mission (fast transit)
The Split – Mission Strategy
Short – Stay Mission…
Short stay on Mars
but…
 Higher radiation exposure
 Transits through highest
risk environments
 Trajectory is
acceptable for
cargo-ships

Long – Stay Mission (min energy)
Less risks associated with inner Solar System
orbits
but…
 Long exposure to
the factors of open
space environment
(0 – g)
 Cargo-ships

Long - Stay Mission (fast transit)
Minimizes crew exposure to open space
 Maximizes surface stay
 Reasonable
energy requirements
 Crewed Mission

Earth
Crewed Mars Mission Options
Mars
Moon
Split Mission Strategy…
Heavy Lift Capability…
+ Deployable
Structures for
Martian Habitat,
Including
Greenhouse…
Conclusions

Manned Mission to Mars is possible…
 … as a very RISKY enterprise…

Key PLS technologies have been tested only in 1-g
 … and never been tested in altered gravities

Bone losses and radiation effects remains
unresolved issues

ISRU concept have been tested… but in limited
version and mostly on Earth
 1-g environment
 Control algorithms ?...
 Technological maturity ~ 8-10 years of intensive efforts

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Psychology of high risk confinements ?
Crew training ??? More than NEVY SEAL…
Crew training…

Professional training
 Technological & Physiological
 Science – Research
 Socio-Psychological
Special physical/physiological training
 Special psychological resistance training…

‘Special endurance’
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3DeSyl1CGIQ
Realism vs. Control
 Motivation ???

Why Go to Mars? (Courtesy of Prof. M. Gaffey)

Biological
 Biological systems expand into new environments

Social & Cultural
 Societies without external boundaries tend to become
more internalized and restrictive
 Increase the number of “baskets”

Technical
 Attempting the difficult is how progress is made

Scientific
 Life on Mars?
 Comparative planetology
Why Mars? (August’92, Houston, TX)
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Human Evolution (Bio-Technical)
Comparative planetology (Science)
International Cooperation
Technological Advancements
Inspiration
Investments (in the future ?...)
???
There are NO any commercial or business related rationales
behind mission to Mars…
except
‘Extreme (Ultimate) Adventure…’
Why Go to Mars? (A. Maslow)
Why should humans go to Mars?...
Searching for ‘New Heavens’… (?)
 Exploratory Instincts… ?
 Testing for maturity of our technologies,
integration, and risk taking capabilities…
 Searching for Life…?
 Self-Actualization (top of motivations)
… And testing for our intellectual-mental
limits…

 ‘Bio-Technological’ Evolution
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lJMCrPb-EEM
Questions & Discussion ?
A Crewed Mission to Mars:
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/mars/marsprof.html
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