Chapter 10
Understanding Groups and
Teams
Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
10-1
LEARNING OUTLINE
Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter
• Understanding Groups and Teams
– Define the two types of groups
– Define work team
– Compare groups and teams
– Describe the four most common types of teams
– Describe the five stages of team development
Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
10-2
LEARNING OUTLINE (cont’d)
Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter
• Turning Individuals into Team Players
– Describe the roles team members play
– Discuss how organizations can create team players
• Turning Groups into Effective Teams
– List the characteristics of effective team
– Describe the relationships between group cohesiveness and
productivity
– Discuss how conflict management influences group behaviour
– Define social loafing
Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
10-3
Understanding Groups and Teams
• Group
– Two or more interacting and interdependent
individuals who come together to achieve particular
goals
• Formal groups
– Work groups that have designated work assignments
and tasks directed toward organizational goals
• Informal groups
– Groups that are independently formed to meet the
social needs of their members
Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
10-4
Exhibit 10.1a Examples of Formal
Groups
•
•
•
•
Command
Task
Cross-functional
Self-managed
Groups that are determined by the organization
chart and composed of individuals who report
directly to a given manager
Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
10-5
Exhibit 10.1b Examples of Formal
Groups
•
•
•
•
Command
Task
Cross-functional
Self-managed
Groups composed of individuals brought together
to complete a specific job task; their existence is
often temporary because once the task is
completed, the group disbands
Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
10-6
Exhibit 10.1c Examples of Formal
Groups
•
•
•
•
Command
Task
Cross-functional
Self-managed
Groups that bring together the knowledge and
skills of individuals from various work areas or
groups whose members have been trained to do
each others’ jobs
Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
10-7
Exhibit 10.1d Examples of Formal
Groups
•
•
•
•
Command
Task
Cross-functional
Self-managed
Groups that are essentially independent and in
addition to their own tasks, take on traditional
responsibilities, such as hiring, planning and
scheduling, and performance evaluations
Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
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Types of Teams
• Problem-solving teams
– Employees from the same department and functional
area who are involved in efforts to improve work
activities or to solve specific problems
• Self-managed work teams
– A formal group of employees who operate without a
manager and are responsible for a complete work
process or segment
Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
10-9
Types of Teams (cont’d)
• Cross-functional teams
– A hybrid grouping of individuals who are experts in
various specialties and who work together on various
tasks
• Virtual teams
– Teams that use computer technology to link physically
dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal
Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
10-10
Ex. 10.2 Stages of Team Development
Prestage 1
Stage III
Norming
Stage I
Forming
Stage IV
Performing
Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
Stage II
Storming
Stage V
Adjourning
10-11
Stages in Group Development
• Forming
– Members join and begin the
process of defining the group’s
purpose, structure, and
leadership
• Storming
– Intragroup conflict occurs as
individuals resist control by the
group and disagree over
leadership
• Norming
• Performing
– A fully functional group
structure allows the group to
focus on performing the task at
hand
• Adjourning
– The group prepares to disband
and is no longer concerned
with high levels of
performance
– Close relationships develop as
the group becomes cohesive and
establishes its norms for
acceptable behaviour
Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
10-12
Creating Team Players
• Challenges for team players
– Individual resistance
• Success is not defined by individual performance but the
team as a whole
– Culture
• Cultural background of individualism or collectivism will
affect team development
Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
10-13
Creating Team Players (cont’d)
• Task-oriented roles
– Roles performed by group members oriented towards
task accomplishment
• Maintenance roles
– Roles performed by group members oriented towards
maintaining good relations within the group
Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
10-14
Shaping Team Behaviour
• Selection
– Individual should have technical and interpersonal
skills
• Training
– Workshops can help individuals become team players
• Rewards
– Given to encourage team work rather than individual
accomplishments
Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
10-15
Ex.10.3 Characteristics of Effective
Teams
Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
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Characteristics of Effective Teams
• Have a clear understanding
of their goals
• Have competent members
with relevant technical and
interpersonal skills
• Exhibit high mutual trust in
the character and integrity of
their members
• Are unified in their
commitment to team goals
• Have good communication
systems
• Possess effective negotiating
skills
• Have appropriate leadership
• Have both internally and
externally supportive
environments
Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
10-17
Turning Groups into Effective Teams
• Group Cohesiveness
– The degree to which members are attracted to a
group and share the group’s goals
• Highly cohesive groups are more effective and
productive than less cohesive groups when their goals
align with organizational goals
Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
10-18
Exhibit 10.4 The Relationship
Between Cohesiveness and
Productivity
Cohesiveness
High
Low
Strong Increase
in Productivity
Moderate Increase
in Productivity
Decrease in
Productivity
No Significant Effect
on Productivity
Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
10-19
Tips for Managers:
Increasing Group Cohesiveness
• Increasing socio-emotional cohesiveness
– Keep the group relatively small
– Strive for a favourable public image to increase the
status and prestige of belonging
– Encourage interaction and cooperation
– Emphasize members’ common characteristics and
interests
– Point out environmental threats (e.g., competitors
achievements) to rally the group
Source: R. Kreitner and A. Kinicki, Organizational Behavior, 6th Ed. (New York: McGraw
Hill/Irwin, 2004), p. 460. Reprinted by permission of McGraw Hill Education.
Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
10-20
Tips for Managers:
Increasing Group Cohesiveness
• Increasing instrumental cohesiveness
– Regularly update and clarify the group’s goal(s)
– Give each group member a vital “piece of the action”
– Channel each group member’s special talents toward
the common goal(s)
– Recognize and equitably reinforce every member’s
contributions
– Frequently remind group members they need each other
to get the job done
Source: R. Kreitner and A. Kinicki, Organizational Behavior, 6th Ed. (New York: McGraw
Hill/Irwin, 2004), p. 460. Reprinted by permission of McGraw Hill Education.
Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
10-21
Managing Group Conflict
• Conflict
– The perceived incompatible differences in a
group resulting in some form of interference with
or opposition to its assigned tasks
• Traditional view: conflict must it avoided
• Human relations view: conflict is a natural and inevitable
outcome in any group
• Interactionist view: conflict can be a positive force and is
absolutely necessary for effective group performance
Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
10-22
Low
Level of Conflict
High
High
Level of
Group
Performance
A
B
C
A
B
C
Exhibit 10.5
Conflict and
Group
Performance
Low
Situation
Level of Conflict
Low or none
Optimal
High
Type of Conflict
Dysfunctional
Functional
Dysfunctional
Group's
Internal
Characteristics
Apathetic
Stagnant
Unresponsive to Change
Lack of New Ideas
Viable
Self-Critical
Innovative
Disruptive
Chaotic
Uncooperative
Level of Group
Performance
Low
High
Low
Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
10-23
Managing Group Conflict (cont’d)
• Categories of Conflict
– Functional conflicts
– Dysfunctional conflicts
• Types of Conflict
– Task conflict: content and goals of the work
– Relationship conflict: interpersonal relationships
– Process conflict: how the work gets done
Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
10-24
Managing Group Conflict (cont’d)
• Techniques to Reduce Conflict:
–
–
–
–
–
Avoidance
Accommodation
Forcing
Compromise
Collaboration
Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
10-25
Exhibit 10.6
Conflict
Resolution
Techniques
Forcing
Collaborating
Resolving conflicts by
satisfying one’s own
needs at the expense
of another’s.
Resolving conflicts by
seeking an advantageous
solution for all parties.
Resolving conflicts by
each party's giving up
something of value.
Compromising
Resolving conflicts by
withdrawing from or
suppressing them.
Source: Adapted from K.W. Thomas,
“Conflict and Negotiation Processes in
Organizations,” in M.D. Dunnette and L.M.
Hough (eds.) Handbook of Industrial and
Organizational Psychology, vol. 3, 2nd ed.
(Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists
Press, 1992), p. 668. With permission.
Resolving conflicts by
placing another’s needs
and concerns above
your own.
Accommodating
Avoiding
Uncooperative
Cooperative
Cooperativeness
Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
10-26
Preventing Social Loafing
• Social Loafing
– The tendency for individuals to expend less
effort when working collectively than when
working individually
Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
10-27
Teams Aren’t Always the Answer
• Three questions to ask to determine the
appropriateness of a team approach:
– Can the work be done better by more than one
person?
– Does the work create a common purpose or set of
goals that is more than the aggregate of
individual goals?
– Are the members of the group interdependent?
Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
10-28