Paranoid Personality Disorder By: Bianca Jimenez Period: 5 Psychology Definition A personality disorder whose outstanding feature is that the individual is extremely suspicious of others and is always on guard against potential danger or harm. Its also know to be a Schizotypal disorder Associated Features They are extremely suspicious of others. It’s hard for them to trust their friends or associates. They would accuse a spouse or partner of being unfaithful, even if it’s not true. They are unable to take responsibility for their mistakes, so they blame others. Cont. Associated Features If they are criticize by others, they become hostile. They have the Tendency to bear grudges. Perception of personal attacks that are not apparent to others and tendency to respond with angry counterattacks. Reluctance to confide in others, for the fear that the information will be used against them. DSM-IV-TR A. A pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following: (1) suspects, without sufficient basis, that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving him or her. (2) Is preoccupied with unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of friends or associates. Cont.… (3)Is reluctant to confide in others because of unwarranted fear that the information will be used maliciously against him or her. (4)Reads hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into benign remarks or events. (5)Persistently bears grudges, I.e., is unforgiving of insults, injuries, or slights. Cont. (6)Perceives attacks on his or her character or reputation that are not apparent to others and is quick to react angrily or to counterattack. (7)Has recurrent suspicions, without justification, regarding fidelity of spouse or sexual partner. (B)Does not occur exclusively during the course of Schizophrenia, a mood disorder with psychotic features, or another Psychotic Disorder and is not due to the direct physiological effects of a general medical condition. Etiology There is an unknown cause for Paranoid Personality Disorder. Some causes for this disorder are physical and emotional trauma from childhood experiences. Also prompted by extreme and unfounded parental rage. Or even sometimes condescending parental influence that cultivate profound the child’s insecurities. Usually begins in early adulthood. Cont. If a person has Paranoid Personality Disorder. It’s a slight increase risk that the disorder could be passed down to their children. People with Paranoid Personality Disorder are more likely to have family members with Schizophrenia. Prevalence Is more prevalent in males than females. Occurs somewhere between 0.5 and 2.5 percent in the general population. Treatment People who are diagnosed with PPD refuse to seek professional help. Because they do not acknowledge the nature of their problem. If they do decide to seek therapy, their rigidity and defensiveness make it really difficult for a clinician to make inroads and work toward any kind of lasting change. Treatment Cognitive-Behavioral : It involves countering the client’s mistaken assumptions in an atmosphere aimed at establishing a sense of trust. The therapist attempts to increase the client’s feelings of self-efficacy, so that the client feels able to handle situations without resorting to a defensive and vigilant stance. Prognosis The outlook usually depends if the person is willing to accept help. Therapy and medications can reduce paranoia and limits impact on the person’s daily functioning. Extreme social isolation Interference with work. Discussion Question Anita is a computer programmer who constantly worries that other people will exploit her knowledge . She regards as “Top Secret” the new database management program she is writing. She even fears that, when she leaves the office at night, someone will sneak into her desk and steal her notes. Her distrust of others pervades all her interpersonal dealings. Her suspicions that she is being cheated even taint routine transactions in banks and stores. Anita like to think of herself as rational and able to make objective decisions; she regards her inability to trust other people as a natural reaction to a world filled with opportunistic and insincere corporate ladder climbers. Discussion Question How does Anita’s sense of mistrust impair her relationships with others? What would lead you to think that Anita has a Paranoid Personality Disorder, rather than a form of psychosis involving paranoid symptoms?