Explanations for specific addictions 1.1 Addiction to smoking. 1.2 Addiction to gambling. Smoking “An uncontrollable dependence on ciggerattes to the point where stopping smoking would cause severe emotional, mental or physical reactions” (Leshner 1999) Most want to stop but don’t. Cigarettes contain a psychoactive drug which stimulates brain activity….Nicotine. Smoking cont… Smoking activates the pleasure centres of the brain which may explain the pleasure & addictiveness of smoking (Berke & Hyman 2000) - Mesolimbic dopamine system. Smokers develop tolerance to nicotine and subsequent withdrawl when trying to stop. This tends to begin in adolescence…severe addictions occur and the smokers finds it difficult to give up (Griffiths 1996) It is also thought to be possibly genetic (see Thorgeirsson et al 2008). There are mediating social-psychological factors- such as initial exposure, this could then lead to pharmacological effects that tap into our reward centres!! Could it be learned? Through the senses (all 5!) the experience of smoking is rewarding. This is an example of conditioning. Environmental cues + smoking = CS experience When present at another time they elicit anticipation of the said drug (nicotine) thus generating massive craving (Lashner,1999) Learning cont… The process becomes linked to relief of withdrawl. They serve as signals/triggers for the urge to smoke at certain times e.g. anger. dinner coffee meeting Evaluation of explanations to addiction to smoking. Biological approaches are too simplistic- Addiction involves an interaction between many factors…not science alone. Psychological vs. physiological- Out of date facts! Is nicotine physically or psychologically addictive? Biological underpinnings similar to other addictions- Relapse can be caused by environmental factors- The cues can be cellular and molecular changes in the brain circuits and genetic basis for addictive behaviour. but these changes are sometimes similar to other divisions (Leshner 1999) conditioned as we have seen those who are addicted at home can kick the habit in other environments…thus exposure to cues can see a addict go into relapse. Explanations of addiction to gambling As we saw earlier it could be cognitive bias and any other number of explanations. Classical/ operant conditioning appears to be the People gamble as a result of becoming conditioned to the excitement and arousal associated with gambling (Anderson & Brown,1984). They become bored and under stimulated without the gambling. Situational Characteristics Features of the environment: Locality Venue Internal (décor heating, lighting). May influence & encourage gambling (Griffiths & Parke 2003). Structural factors (Griffiths 1999,2002) Slot machines have been known to encourage gambling due to some unique (sneaky...some may say) features…. Fast game speed Large jackpots To keep people gambling once they begin. Other factors are also associated including lighting, colour and music and sound effects. Evaluation of explanations of addiction. Addiction is addiction whatever the focusBehavioural is the same as chemical and vice versa. Bio-psychological factors are not the only factors involved in gambling- These factors are not the only influences in the development of addictive behaviour…could be structural too.