Buku-buku Manajemen Strategik
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Strategic Management, Pearce & Robinson
Strategic Management, Hill & Jones
Strategic Management, A. Hitt ; ireland; Hoskisson
Managing the Strategy Process, Cakravarthy
Concept of Strategic Management, Fred R. David
Strategic Management, Arnold C. Hax
Strategic Management, Concept and Casas, Arthur
Thompson
8. Manajemen Strategik, Suwarsono
The Nature and Value
of Strategic
Management
(Hakekat dan Manfaat Manajemen Strategik)
Strategic
Management
 Basic Financial Management - to meet the budget,
 Forecast based planning – predict the future,
 Externally oriented planning – think strategically,
 Strategic management – create the future.
Strategic Management
Is defined as the set of decisions
and actions that result in the
formulation and implementation of
strategic designed to achieve a
company’s objectives
Dimensi- dimensi Keputusan Strategik
•
•
•
•
•
•
Membutuhkan keputusan manajemen
puncak.
Membutuhkan alokasi sumber daya
perusahaan dalam skala besar.
Mempengaruhi kesejahteraan perush
dalam jangka panjang
Berorientasi kemasa depan
Mempunyai konsekuensi
multifungsional/ multibisnis
Harus mempertimbangkan lingkungan
eksternal
3 Tingkatan
Manajemen Strategik
Corporate Level (Dewan Direksi, Presdir)
- Merumuskan visi dan misi perusahaan
- Analisis internal dan eksternal
- Analisis pilihan-pilihan strategik
 Business Level (Direktur, Direks, GM)
- Menyusun rencana jangka panjang
- Merumuskan Grand Strategy
 Functional Level (Manager)
- Menyusun rencana jangka pendek
- Merumuskan strategi fungsional dan
implementasi

Manfaat Manajemen Strategik
Memperkuat kemampuan perusahaan
mencegah masalah
 Formulasi keputusan berdasarkan
kelompok menghasilkan pilihan strategi
terbaik
 Mempertinggi motivasi SDM
 Mengurangi tumpang tindih kegiatan
 Penolakan terhadap perubahan berkurang

Strategic Management Model
COMPANY MISSION
COMPANY PROFILE
What is
Posible
External Enviraonment
Operting Industry
And Multinational Analysis
What is Desired?
Feed Back
Feed Back
Strategic Analysis and Choice
Long – Term objectives
Annual Objectives
Legend: Major Impact
Minor Impact
Grand Strategies
Functional Strataegies
Institutionalizing the Strategies
Control and Evaluation
Policies
COMPONENT OF THE MANAGEMENT MODEL
1.
2.
3.
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5.
6.
7.
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11.
Company mission (misi perusahaan)
Company profile (profil perusahaan)
External environment (lingkungan eksternal)
Strategic analysis and choice (analisis dan pilihan strategik)
Long-term objectives (sasaran jangka panjang)
Grand strategy (strategi umum)
Annual objectives (sasaran tahunan)
Functional strategies (strategi fungsional)
Policies (kebijakan)
Institutionalizing the strategy (melembagakan strategi)
Control and evaluation (pengendalian dan evaluasi)
3 (tiga) Bentuk Proses Berpikir
Berpikir sistem
mekanik
intuisi
Berpikir strategik
Bentuk
masalah
Proses
Berpikir
pemecahan
Penyusunan kembali
elemen- elemen
Optimalisasi lokal atau
melihat pohon tidak hutannya
Perubahan atau pergantian bentuk
How The Process of Strategic
Decision have been made?
Copyright 2006, Fauzan Asmara & Associates, Inc.
Karunia Allah Kepada Manusia
Sebagai Khalifah di muka bumi
Copyright, 2006, Fauzan Asmara & Associates, Inc.
NEURONS
Pyotr Anokhin
Manusia memiliki ratusan milyar neuron.
Kepandaian tidak ditentukan volume otak, tetapi
ditentukan oleh INTERCONECTION antar
neuron atau CIRCUIT.
Copyright, 2006, Fauzan Asmara & Associates, Inc.
Neuron berkembang sejak bayi dalam kandungan
Setelah lahir berada pada tahap pematangan
Exposure stimulus perlu dirancang sejak dini
Orang pintar : interconection otak rapat,
banyak dan jauh.
Orang bodoh: interconection otak
renggang, jarang dan pendek.
Otak harus mengkonsumsi banyak
ilmu agar sehat, awet dan bugar.
Copyright, 2005, Fauzan Asmara & Associates, Inc.
4 LANGKAH MEMBACA
untuk MEMICU DAYA KREATIF
(JORDAN AYAN)
• BERJANJILAH untuk MEMBACA
secara KREATIF SETIAP HARI
• MEMBACA secara “NGEMIL”
(sedikit demi sedikit)
• BACALAH SESUATU dari
BERAGAM SUMBER BACAAN
• TERAPKAN APA yang ANDA
BACA dalam KEHIDUPAN
SEHARI-HARI
Pengaruh IQ hanya 5 - 20%
Sisanya dipengaruhi oleh EQ dan SQ
Copyright 2006, Fauzan Asmara & Associates, Inc.
Brain Mapping
Neocortex
Otak berfikir dan berbahasa
(alam sadar)
Limbic
Pusat emosi
Amigdala
Copyright, 2006, Fauzan Asmara & Associates, Inc.
Gudang ingatan emosional
Pengendali alam sadar
Kabel pemicu syaraf
Alam Bawah Sadar menjalankan
super program, menghasilkan
out-put :
•Sukses Bisnis
•Citra Diri dan Perusahaan
•Nasib Perusahaan
Copyright, 2006, Fauzan Asmara & Associates, Inc.
Gelombang Otak
Copyright 2006, Fauzan Asmara & Associates, Inc.
Hemisphere of Human Brain
KINERJA PUNCAK OTAK
Copyright, 2006, Fauzan Asmara & Associates, Inc.
BAGAIMANA
MENGAKTIFKAN ALFA
•MUSIC
•ARTISTIC
•PANORAMIC PICTURE
•RELIGIOUS RITUAL
•GOOD ATMOSPHERE
•JOKE & FUN
•LOVE
Copyright, 2006, Fauzan Asmara & Associates, Inc.
Energy and Emotion
Robert E. Thayer
(California State University)
• Tense – Energy
• Calm – Energy
• Tense – Tiredness
• Calm - Tiredness
C = Calmness; E = Energy; T = Tension; F = Fatigue
Spiritual Quotient
Kemampuan memberi makna puncak
spiritual (ultimate meaning)
bersumber dari suara hati ilahiah
(fitrah) dan menjadikan Tuhan
sebagai pusat orbit dan kita
senantiasa berada di garis orbit- Nya.
Spiritual Experience (Pare-line)
Osilasi 40 Herz
Copyright, 2005, Fauzan Asmara & Associates, Inc.
SUARA HATI ILAHIAH dari Pusat Orbit
Pengasih sesama
Berhati jernih
Menguasai diri
Cinta Damai
Kejujuran
Kreatif
Pemaaf
Murah hati
Empati
Objektif
Berilmu
Adil
Mensyukuri
Bersikap mulia
Berhati lapang
Kebenaran
Komitmen
Konsisten
Mandiri
Inovatif
Bersikap terpuji
Memiliki skill
Enerjik
Selalu Menghargai
Sinergis
Ikhlas
Pemberi manfaat
Inspirator
Estetis
Pendelegasi
Sabar
Dan (ingatlah) ketika Tuhanmu mengeluarkan dari bani Adam
keturunannya dari sulbinya, dan Allah mengambil kesaksian terhadap
jiwa mereka (seraya berkata): “Bukankah Aku ini Tuhanmu?”. Mereka
menjawab: “Betul (Engkau Tuhan kami) kami bersaksi.” Al- A’raaf 172
Copyright, 2005, Fauzan Asmara & Associates, Inc.
Rumus ZMP
Bangkitkan “Raksasa tidur” dalam diri Anda
1/0 = ~
Jika Anda ikhlas dan jernih (=0)
maka Anda akan mendekati yang
Maha Tak Terhingga yaitu Tuhan
Bersihkan diri Anda dari Belenggu
(Zero Mind Process)
Copyright, 2006, Fauzan Asmara & Associates, Inc.
ESQ Processing System
Orientasi
Materialisme
Orientasi
Spiritualisme
Emosi tdk terkendali
Emosi terkendali
Marah, sedih, cemas
Tenang, damai, ikhlas
God Spot terbelenggu
God Spot terbuka
Suara hati tertutup
Suara hati bekerja
Logika tdk bekerja normal
Logika bekerja normal
IQ, EQ, SQ terpisah
Split personality
IQ, EQ, SQ terintegrasi
Personality Balance
4 tipe Manusia
Copyright, 2006, Fauzan Asmara & Associates, Inc.
Management Strategic
Comprehensive Strategic Model
The External Environment:
Opportunities, Threats, Industry
Competition, and
Competitor Analysis
Internal Analysis/Company Profile
Fauzan Asmara
Ch2-32
Strategic Management Model
COMPANY MISSION
COMPANY PROFILE
What is
Possible
External Environment
Operating Industry
And Multinational Analysis
What is Desired?
Feed Back
Feed Back
Strategic Analysis and Choice
Long – Term objectives
Annual Objectives
Legend: Major Impact
Minor Impact
Grand Strategies
Functional Strategies
Institutionalizing the Strategies
Control and Evaluation
Policies
The External Environment:
Opportunities, Threats, Industry
Competition, and Competitor Analysis
Michael A. Hitt
R. Duane Ireland
Robert E. Hoskisson
Ch2-34
Components of the General Environment
Economic
Demographic
Sociocultural
Industry
Environment
Competitive
Environment
Political/L
egal
Global
Technological
Ch2-35
Components of the General Environment
Demographic
Segment
 Population size
 Age structure
 Geographic distribution
 Ethnic mix
 Income distribution
Economic
Segment




 Personal savings rate
 Business savings rates
 Gross domestic product
Political/Legal
Segment
 Antitrust laws
 Taxation laws
 Deregulation philosophies
 Labor training laws
 Educational philosophies and
policies
Sociocultural
Segment
 Women in the workforce
 Workforce diversity
 Attitudes about work life
quality
 Concerns about the
environment
 Shifts in work and career
preferences
 Shifts in preferences regarding
product and service
characteristics
Technological
Segment
 Product innovations
 Applications of knowledge
 Focus of private and
government-supported R&D
expenditures
 New communication
technologies
Global
Segment
 Important political events
 Critical global markets
 Newly industrialized countries
 Different cultural and
institutional attributes
Inflation rates
Interest rates
Trade deficits or surpluses
Budget deficits or surpluses
Ch2-36
External Environmental Analysis
Scanning
Identifying early signals of environmental
changes and trends
Monitoring
Detecting meaning through ongoing observations
of environmental changes and trends
Forecasting
Developing projections of anticipated outcomes
based on monitored changes and trends
Assessing
Determining the timing and importance of
environmental changes and trends for firms'
strategies and their management
Ch2-37
Porter’s Five Forces
Model of Competition
Threat of
Threat
Newof New
Entrants
Entrants
Bargaining
Power of
Suppliers
Rivalry Among
Competing Firms in
Industry
Bargaining
Power of
Buyers
Threat of
Substitute
Products
Ch2-38
Competitor Analysis
Identifying the company’s
competitor
Assessing competitors’
objectives, strategies,
strengths, and weaknesses,
and reaction patterns
Selecting which competitors to
attack or avoid
The Internal Environment:
Resources, Capabilities and
Core Competencies
Michael A. Hitt
R. Duane Ireland
Robert E. Hoskisson
©2000 South-Western College Publishing
Ch2-40
External Environment
What the Firm Might Do?
Sustainable
Competitive
Advantage
Internal Environment
What the Firm Can Do?
Ch2-41
SWOT Analysis
•
•
•
•
Strengths
Weaknesses
Opportunities
Threats
Ch2-42
The purpose of SWOT Analysis
• It is an easy-to-use tool for developing
an overview of a company’s strategic
situation
– It forms a basis for matching your
company’s strategy to its situation
Ch2-43
Strengths
• A STRENGTH is something a company
is good at doing or a characteristic that
gives it an important capability.
• Possible Strengths:
– Name recognition
– Proprietary technology
– Cost advantages
– Skilled employees
– Loyal Customers
Ch2-44
Weaknesses
• A WEAKNESS is something a company
lacks or does poorly (in comparison to
others) or a condition that places it at a
disadvantage
• Possible Weaknesses:
– Poor market image
– Obsolete facilities
– Internal operating problems
– Poor marketing skills
Ch2-45
Strengths and Weakness form a
basis for INTERNAL analysis
• By examining strengths, you can
discover untapped potential or identify
distinct competencies that helped you
succeed in the past.
• By examining weaknesses, you can
identify gaps in performance,
vulnerabilities, and erroneous
assumptions about existing strategies.
Ch2-46
Discovering Core
Competencies
Competitive
Advantage
Gained through
Core Competencies
Strategic
Competitiveness
Discovering
Core
Competencies
Core
Competencies
Above-Average
Returns
Sources of
Competitive
Advantage
Capabilities
Criteria of
Sustainable
Advantages
Teams of
Resources
Resources
* Tangible
* Intangible
*
*
*
*
Valuable
Rare
Costly to Imitate
Nonsubstitutable
Ch2-47
Core Competencies
What a firm Does...
Core Competencies must be: that is Strategically
Valuable
Valuable
Capabilities that either help a firm to exploit opportunities to create value for customers
or to neutralize threats in the environment
Rare
Capabilities that are possessed by few, if any, current or potential competitors
Costly to Imitate
Capabilities that other firms cannot develop easily, usually due to unique historical
conditions, causal ambiguity or social complexity
Nonsubstitutable
Capabilities that do not have strategic equivalents, such as firm-specific knowledge or
trust-based relationships
Ch2-48
Key Issues of Business-Level
Strategy
►What
good or service to offer
customers
►How to manufacture or create the
good or service
►How to distribute the good or service
in the marketplace
The Central Role of Customers
In selecting a business-level strategy,
the firm determines
1. who it will serve?
2. what needs those target
customers have that it will satisfy?
3. how those needs will be satisfied ?
Quality Dimensions of Goods & Services
Product Quality Dimensions:
Performance
Features
Flexibility
Durability
Operating characteristics
Important special characteristics
Meeting operating specifications over time
Amount of use before performance
deteriorates
Conformance Match with pre-established standards
Serviceability
Ease and speed of repair or normal service
Aesthetics
How a product looks and feels
Perceived quality Subjective assessment of characteristics
(product image)
Quality Dimensions of Goods & Services
Service Quality Dimensions:
Timeliness
Performed in promised period of time
Courtesy
Performed cheerfully
Consistency
Giving all customers similar experiences
Convenience
Accessibility to customers
Completeness
Fully serviced, as required
Accuracy
Performed correctly each time
Strategies in Action
Long-Term Objectives
Grand Strategies
Strategy Implementation
Fauzan Asmara
Ch. 5-53
Strategies in Action
Nature of Long-Term Objectives
(Results expected from pursuing certain strategies; time line 2 to 5 years)








Quantitative
Measurable
Realistic
Understandable
Challenging
Hierarchical
Obtainable
Congruent among organizational units
Ch. 5-54
© 2001 Prentice Hall
Strategies in Action
Nature of Long-Term Objectives
Objectives are associated with a time line and stated in terms:
• Growth in assets
• Growth in sales
• Profitability
• Market share
• HRD
• Increasing Capability
• Social responsibility
Ch. 5-55
© 2001 Prentice Hall
Strategies in Action
Nature of Long-Term Objectives
Objectives are the basis for:
•
•
•
•
•
Designing jobs
Organizing activities
Providing direction
Organizational synergy
Standards for evaluation
Ch. 5-56
© 2001 Prentice Hall
Grand Strategies
Vertical Integration Strategies
•
•
•
Forward integration
Backward integration
Horizontal integration
Ch. 5-57
© 2001 Prentice Hall
Grand Strategies
Forward
Integration
Example
Defined
•
•
General Motors mengakuisisi
10 persen saham dealer
Memperoleh
kepemilikan atau
meningkatkan kendali
atas distributor atau
dealer
Ch. 5-58
© 2001 Prentice Hall
Grand Strategies
Backward
Integration
Example
•
Defined
•
Hotel membeli perusahaan
biro perjalanan; mebel;etc.
Mendapatkan
kepemilikian atau
meningkatkan kendali
atas pemasok
Ch. 5-60
© 2001 Prentice Hall
Grand Strategies
Horizontal
Integration
Example
•
Defined
•
Mendapatkan
kepemilikan atau
mengambil alih
perusahaan pesaing
Hotel Hilton membeli Hotel
Promus
Ch. 5-62
© 2001 Prentice Hall
Grand Strategies
Intensive Strategies
•
•
•
Market penetration
Market development
Product development
Ch. 5-64
© 2001 Prentice Hall
Grand Strategies
Market
Penetration
Example
•
Defined
Unilever membelanjakan uang
untuk iklan TV sebesar 1.2
Trilyun sepanjang tahun 2005
Meningkatkan pangsa
pasar dengan produk
dan jasa yang ada pada
pasar yang ada dengan
usaha-usaha pemasaran
Ch. 5-65
© 2001 Prentice Hall
Grand Strategies
Market
Development
Example
Defined
•
•
Memperkenalkan produk
atau jasa yang ada pada
daerah atau pasar baru
Fren pemain seluler CDMA
sekarang mulai merambah ke
Makasar dan palembang
setelah Jawa, Madura dan Bali
Ch. 5-67
© 2001 Prentice Hall
Grand Strategies
Product
Development
Example
Defined
•
Merubah atau
memodifikasi produk
perusahaan dan dijual
pada pasar yang sudah
ada
•
Apel mengembangkan Chip G4
yang memiliki kecepatan 500
megahertz.
Ch. 5-69
© 2001 Prentice Hall
Grand Strategies
Diversification Strategies
Concentric diversification
• Conglomerate diversification
•
Ch. 5-71
© 2001 Prentice Hall
Grand Strategies
Concentric
Diversification
Example
Defined
•
•
Menambah produk atau
jasa baru, yang masih
berkaitan (pasar, produk,
dan teknologi)
Sebuah bank membeli
perusahaan asuransi.
Ch. 5-72
© 2001 Prentice Hall
Grand Strategies
Conglomerate
Diversification
Example
Defined
•
•
Menambah produk atau
jasa baru yang tidak
PT. Sampoerna mulai melirik
bisnis properti untuk
kelangsungan hidup grup
sampoerna
berkaitan
Ch. 5-74
© 2001 Prentice Hall
Grand Strategies
Defensive Strategies
•
•
Joint venture
Retrenchment
• Divestiture
• Liquidation
Ch. 5-76
© 2001 Prentice Hall
Grand Strategies
Joint Venture
Example
Defined
Dua atau lebih
perusahaan mensposnori
untuk membentuk
perusahaan baru
terpisah dengan tujuan
•
•
Lucent Technologies and
Philips Electronic NV formed
Philips Consumer
Communications to make and
sell telephones.
yang sama
Ch. 5-77
© 2001 Prentice Hall
Grand Strategies
Retrenchment
Turn Around
Example
Defined
•
Mengubah
pengelompokan melalui
pengurangan biaya dan
aset untuk memperbaiki
penjualan dan laba yang
•
Perusahaan Perkebunan
Negara merampingkan
organisasi; melakukan
rasionalisasi; pengurangan
perjalanan dinas dan fasilitas
mewah untuk menekan
kerugian.
menurun.
Ch. 5-79
© 2001 Prentice Hall
Grand Strategies
Divestiture
Example
Defined
•
•
Selling a division or part
of an organization
Harcourt General, the large US
publisher, is selling its Neiman
Marcus division.
Ch. 5-81
© 2001 Prentice Hall
Grand Strategies
Liquidation
Example
Defined
•
•
Selling all of a company’s
assets, in parts, for their
Bank Summa menjual seluruh
asetnya untuk menutup
kewajibannya
tangible worth
Ch. 5-83
© 2001 Prentice Hall
Contoh Soal





Toyota mendirikan AUTO 2000 untuk
mendukung penjualan dan jaringan service di
seluruh Indonesia.
Indofood mengakuisisi PT. Bogasari untuk
menjamin kelancaran pasokan gandumnya.
SCTV mendirikan ScFm di Surabaya.
Kartu kredit city Bank yang tadinya dijual ke
pengusaha sekarang juga merambah ke
kalangan mahasiswa.
Indofood yang sudah memiliki produk Indomie
akhirnya juga mengakuisisi Sarimie dan
Supermie
Michael Porter’s Generic Strategies
Cost Leadership Strategies
Differentiation Strategies
Focus Strategies
Ch. 5-86
© 2001 Prentice Hall
Five Generic Strategies
Competitive Advantage
Cost
Uniqueness
Broad
target
Differentiation
Integrated Cost
Leadership/
Differentiation
Narrow
target
Competitive Scope
Cost Leadership
Focused Cost
Leadership
Focused
Differentiation
Ch. 5-87
© 2001 Prentice Hall