HENRY JAMES THE TURN OF THE SCREW BY TIHANA MALIČ Other than literary or scientific influences • Characters are ‘drawn from life’ • The Turn of the Screw grows out of social attitudes at the end of the 19th century GHOST STORIES AND GHOST CASES • Some critics have tried to connect the story with other ‘ghost stories’ in the gothic tradition • Connection with ‘ghost cases’ reported to and by practitioners of ‘psychical research’ FREUD • Edmund Wilson (in 1934) – used ‘Freudian symbols’ to explain some objects and settings in the story • reactions against governess’s mental state Ghosts are real & the governess is mad • In the early 1970s • Earlier these two were mutually exclusive 1980s and 1990s • ‘Both’ or ‘We cannot decide’ • Marcia M. Eaton’s ‘Speech-act theory’ • Use of technical methods • Use of terminology – semantics, linguistics and syntactics (counting ‘dashes’, looking for ‘signs’, etc.) Marxist and gender-based interpretations • Differs from the psychoanalytic view of the governess • Presents the governess as a member of struggling lower-class Feminists approach • Defends the governess • If the governess was ‘male’ it would not be debatable whether ‘he’ was sane or not Recent approaches • The homoerotic view of the story • Henry James’s homosexuality reflected in the story • Oscar Wilde’s trial Finding ‘the meaning’! • In 1990s Andreson argues that ‘reading’ the story is no longer possible because reading suggests finding a meaning… • ‘the meaning’ hasn’t been found yet! WORKS CITED James, Henry. The Turn of the Screw. Ed. Peter G. Beidler. Bedford / St.Martin, 2004.