Unit 3B: Biological Bases of Behavior: The Brain Overview model of brain Unit Overview 1. The Tools of Discovery: Having Our Head Examined 2. Brain Structures 3. The Cerebral Cortex 4. Our Divided Brain 5. Right-Left Differences in the Intact Brain 6. The Brain and Consciousness Click on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation. The Tools of Discovery: Having Our Head Examined prep DVD1, Neuroscience and Behavior, #2 Introduction LO #1, p. 67 • lesion two effects of damage to a rat’s hypothalamus? What are three ways scientists can stimulate parts of the brain? 1. 2. 3. Recording the Brain’s Electrical Activity • electroencephalogram (EEG) How does an EEG work? What might it reveal? Rachel W. taste Neuroimaging Techniques • CT (Computed Tomography) scan • PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scan • MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) • fMRI (Functional MRI) How is a CT scan different from PET scan? MRI from fMRI? Structure or function? Video: Mapping the Brain Through Electrical Stimulation, 2:40 (DVD1, Neuroscience and Behavior, clip 05, p. 13) prep Vol. 2, DVD1 (Neuroscience and Behavior), Clip 106 Brain Structures The Brainstem LO #2 – importance of lower-level brain structures • brainstem –medulla –pons (relays signals from forebrain to the cerebellum –reticular formation The Thalamus • thalamus –all the senses EXCEPT smell; (brain’s sensory switchboard or post office) The Cerebellum • cerebellum –“little brain” Michael Jordan The Limbic System • limbic System –hippocampus Video: Compulsive Gambling and the Brain’s Pleasure Center Vol. 2, DVD1 (Neuroscience and Behavior), Clip 106, 5:20 min. The Limbic System The Amygdala • amygdala –aggression and fear The Limbic System The Hypothalamus • hypothalamus, p. 72 –influence on the pituitary gland –reward centers –reward deficiency syndrome (e.g., Kim Rainer) Hypothalamus is responsible for “drives” including sexual behavior. Yes, the hypothalamus is responsible for “sexual behavior.” What does THAT mean? “. . . and the two shall become one flesh.” Review of web site www.pureintimacy.org Click on God’s design for sex Then on What’s Good About Sex The Cerebral Cortex prep Phineas Gage video Introduction LO #3 – cerebral cortex regions • cerebrum – the two large hemispheres –cerebral cortex thin surface layer Structure of the Cortex • glial cells (“glue cells”) • lobes –frontal lobe –parietal lobe –occipital lobe –temporal lobe Functions of the Cortex Motor Functions • motor cortex • mapping the motor cortex (surgery humor) • neural prosthetics (paralyzed 25-yr. old man) Functions of the Cortex Sensory Functions • sensory cortex (brain model) Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex For each statement, identify the lobe that has the primary responsibility for that activity or experience. A Temporal Listening to music Frontal Waving your arm Parietal Feeling gloves on your hands Occipital Viewing a sunset Temporal Frontal Occipital Parietal Hearing your name being called Making plans for dinner Seeing your friend’s face Experiencing an itch B D C Functions of the Cortex Association Areas • association areas –frontal lobe (motor strip) –Phineas Gage (demo of frontal association area at work) –parietal lobe (sensory strip) –temporal lobe (brain model) Video: Phineas Gage then prep DVD1, Neuroscience and Behavior, clip 06 Video: Planning, Life Goals, and the Frontal Lobe, (DVD1, Neuroscience and Behavior, clip 06, p. 14, 6:20) (Vietnam veteran) Language LO #4 – areas of language processing • aphasia, p. 80 –Broca’s area (damage disrupts speaking) –Wernicke’s area (damage disrupts understanding) Language, p. 81 prep DVD1, Neuroscience and Behavior, clip 08 Language Language Language Language Language Video: Language and Brain Plasticity, 4:00 (DVD1, Neuroscience and Behavior, clip 08, p. 18) prep “Split Brain” The Brain’s Plasticity LO #5 – reorganization of damaged brain • brain damage –plasticity (ability to modify itself after . . .) –constraint-induced therapy (forced use of . . .) –neurogenesis (generate new brain cells) Our Divided Brain Splitting the Brain LO #6 – what split brains reveal • Vogel and Bogen, p. 83 –corpus-callosum –split brain (result?) –Myers and Gazzaniga (brains of cats and monkeys) Video: Split Brain, 12:26 Right-Left Differences in the Intact Brain How Smart Is Your Right Foot? While sitting at your desk, lift your right foot off the floor and make clockwise circles with it. Now, while doing this, draw the number "6" in the air with your right hand. What happens? Right-Left Brain Differences LO #7 – handedness • hemispheric specialization, p. 87 –perceptual tasks (right) –language (effect of sedative to left hemisphere) ACTIVITY Handout 3B-4 The Wagner Preference Inventory Hand Usage Questionnaire With which hand do you . . . 1. Draw? Left Right Either 2. Write? Left Right Either 3. Use a bottle opener? Left Right Either 4. Throw a snowball? Left Right Either 5. Use a hammer? Left Right Either 6. Use a toothbrush? Left Right Either 7. Use a screwdriver? Left Right Either 8. Use an eraser on paper? Left Right Either 9. Use a tennis racket? Left Right Either 10. Use a scissors? Left Right Either 11. Stir a can of paint? Left Right Either 12. On which do you rest a bat before swinging? Left Right Either Hemisphere Activity Demonstration The Brain and Consciousness Introduction LO #8 – dual processing • consciousness, p.89 (two proposed advantages) - helps us act in long-term interests - promotes survival Cognitive Neuroscience • cognitive neuroscience (interdisciplinary study) View CT scan images Dual Processing • dual processing, p. 90 –conscious left brain conscious deliberate “high road” –intuitive right brain unconscious, automatic “low road” • visual perception track • visual action track clip Corpus callosum Thalamus Hypothalamus Pituitary A. Amygdala C. Reticular formation D. Medulla B. Hippocampus Spinal cord E. Cerebellum Activation of this area would result in: coordinated movement anger waking up from a nap a steady heartbeat the ability to remember what you did two minutes ago Cerebral cortex Corpus callosum Thalamus Hypothalamus Pituitary A. Amygdala C. Reticular formation D. Medulla B. Hippocampus Spinal cord E. Cerebellum Damage to this area would result in: not breathing stumbling an inability to store new memories being unable to wake up an inability to feel fear Cerebral cortex A. Corpus callosum B. Thalamus C. Hypothalamus Pituitary Amygdala Reticular formation Medulla Hippocampus D. Spinal cord Cerebellum Activation of this area would result in: the maintenance of body temperature. recalling old memories. your brain being able to tell your legs to move. the routing of visual signals to the occipital lobe. communication between the two hemispheres E. Cerebral cortex A. Corpus callosum B. Thalamus C. Hypothalamus Pituitary Amygdala Reticular formation Medulla Hippocampus D. Spinal cord Cerebellum Damage to this area would result in: a split brain. inoperative reward centers. your feet being unable to tell your brain you’re wearing socks. an inability to send auditory signals to your temporal lobes. an altered personality. E. Cerebral cortex Test Time! • Types of Files Teacher Information – This presentation has been saved as a “basic” Powerpoint file. While this file format placed a few limitations on the presentation, it insured the file would be compatible with the many versions of Powerpoint teachers use. To add functionality to the presentation, teachers may want to save the file for their specific version of Powerpoint. • Animation – Once again, to insure compatibility with all versions of Powerpoint, none of the slides are animated. To increase student interest, it is suggested teachers animate the slides wherever possible. • Adding slides to this presentation – Teachers are encouraged to adapt this presentation to their personal teaching style. To help keep a sense of continuity, blank slides which can be copied and pasted to a specific location in the presentation follow this “Teacher Information” section. Teacher Information • Hyperlink Slides - This presentation contain two types of hyperlinks. Hyperlinks can be identified by the text being underlined and a different color (usually purple). – Unit subsections hyperlinks: Immediately after the unit title slide, a page (slide #3) can be found listing all of the unit’s subsections. While in slide show mode, clicking on any of these hyperlinks will take the user directly to the beginning of that subsection. This allows teachers quick access to each subsection. – Bold print term hyperlinks: Every bold print term from the unit is included in this presentation as a hyperlink. While in slide show mode, clicking on any of the hyperlinks will take the user to a slide containing the formal definition of the term. Clicking on the “arrow” in the bottom left corner of the definition slide will take the user back to the original point in the presentation. These hyperlinks were included for teachers who want students to see or copy down the exact definition as stated in the text. Most teachers prefer the definitions not be included to prevent students from only “copying down what is on the screen” and not actively listening to the presentation. For teachers who continually use the Bold Print Term Hyperlinks option, please contact the author using the email address on the next slide to learn a technique to expedite the returning to the original point in the presentation. Teacher Information • Continuity slides – Throughout this presentation there are slides, usually of graphics or tables, that build on one another. These are included for three purposes. • By presenting information in small chunks, students will find it easier to process and remember the concepts. • By continually changing slides, students will stay interested in the presentation. • To facilitate class discussion and critical thinking. Students should be encouraged to think about “what might come next” in the series of slides. • Please feel free to contact me at [email protected] with any questions, concerns, suggestions, etc. regarding these presentations. Kent Korek Germantown High School Germantown, WI 53022 262-253-3400 [email protected] Division title (green print) subdivision title (blue print) • xxx –xxx –xxx Division title (green print) subdivision title (blue print) Use this slide to add a table, chart, clip art, picture, diagram, or video clip. Delete this box when finished Definition Slide = add definition here Definition Slides Lesion = tissue destruction; a brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue. Electroencephalogram (EEG) = an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain’s surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp. CT (computed tomography) Scan = a series of X-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body. • Also called CAT scan. PET (positron emission tomography) Scan = a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) = a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computergenerated images of soft tissue. MRI scans show brain anatomy. fMRI (functional MRI) = a technique for revealing bloodflow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. fMRI scans show brain function. Brainstem = the central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions. Medulla = the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing. Reticular Formation = a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal. Thalamus = the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla. Cerebellum = the “little brain” at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance. Limbic System = doughnut-shaped neural system (including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives. Amygdala = two lima bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion. Hypothalamus = a neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature, sexual behavior), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward. Cerebral Cortex = the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body’s ultimate control and information-processing center. Glial Cells = cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons. Frontal Lobe = portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments. Parietal Lobe = portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position. Occipital Lobe = portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas that receive information from the visual fields. Temporal Lobe = portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear. Motor Cortex = an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements. Sensory Cortex = area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations. Association Areas = areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking. Aphasia = impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding). Broca’s Area = controls language expression that directs the muscle movements involved in speech. Wernicke’s Area = controls language reception – a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe. Plasticity = the brain’s ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience. Neurogenesis = the formation of new neurons. Corpus Callosum = the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them. Split Brain = a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain’s two hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them. Consciousness = our awareness of ourselves and our environment. Cognitive Neuroscience = the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory and language). Dual Processing =the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks.