MOTIVATIONS, TACIT AND
EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE
I203 Social and Organizational Issues of Info
Tacit and Explicit Knowledge
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(Taken from http://www.libsuite.com/know_management.htm)
Knowledge Forms


Explicit Knowledge
 Reproduced through
codes, language,
symbols
Tacit Knowledge
 Reproduced through
action-based skills
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Tacit and Explicit Knowledge in IT

“Codified Knowledge” in Information and
Communication Technologies


Synonym for explicit knowledge: can be translated and
articulated in formal language or symbols.
“Communities of Practice”

Geographically dispersed professionals (often in different
fields) who share common practices and interests in a
particular area.
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Comparing Explicit and Tacit Knowledge

Consider Information Transfer:
 By
example, how does explicit knowledge function in an
organization?
 And
tacit knowledge?
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Uninvention of Nuclear Weapons
(MacKenzie and Spinardi)

Can the difficulties associated
with transferring tacit knowledge
actually lead to the “uninvention”
of technologies?
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http://tinyurl.com/dcma7z
Motivations for Transferring Knowledge
(Osterloh and Frey)

Intrinsic motivation
Satisfies one’s own
immediate needs
 Advantages and
disadvantages?


Extrinsic motivation
Indirect
compensation of
needs
 Advantages and
disadvantages?

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“Crowding Effect” on Motivation

Crowding Effect
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Psychological Processes

Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Locus of Control
 Intrinsic
motivation is tied to control over one’s
actions. If the impetus for an action depends on
external rewards, the control is shifted to the
outside (undermines our self-determination)
Psychological Processes (continued)

Psychology of Contracts and Reciprocity
 Exchange
relationships have socio-emotional aspects as
well as utilitarian benefits.

From Social Exchange Theory:
 Reciprocal
exchange has both instrumental value as
well as communicative or symbolic value
Crowding out vs. Crowding in

Adwords and Blogging…

Monetary rewards and open source development…

Other examples of “Crowding Out” and/or
“Crowding In”?
Motivational and Knowledge Requirements in
Organizational Forms
Tacit Knowledge
Explicit Knowledge
Intrinsic
Motivation
Knowledgebased teams
Knowledge
producing teams
Extrinsic
Motivation
Independent
knowledge
workers
Profit centers,
spin-offs
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