Introduction to Criminology
CRJ 270
Instructor: Jorge Pierrott
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Criminology Today
AN INTEGRATIVE INTRODUCTION
SEVENTH EDITION
CHAPTER
10
Crimes Against
Persons
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Chapter Objectives
After reading this chapter, students should be able to answer
the following questions:
• What is criminal homicide, and what are the key issues
involved in explaining patterns of homicide?
• How is the crime of rape defined, and what are
the key
issues involved in explaining the crime of rape?
• What does the term child sexual abuse encompass? What
are the various types of child sexual abusers?
• How is the crime of robbery defined, and what are the
different kinds of robbery?
• How is the crime of assault defined, and what are the
various kinds of assault?
• What three additional forms of interpersonal violence does
this chapter discuss?
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Introduction
• Sources of official U.S. crime statistics
 National Crime Victimization Survey
(NCVS)
 Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)
 National Incident Based Reporting
System (NIBRS)
continued on next slide
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
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Introduction
• These sources use their own specialized
definitions that may vary considerably
between programs and that are not
strictly based on federal or state
statutes
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
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Murder
• Homicide
 Willful killing of one human being by
another
• Murder
 Criminal homicide
continued on next slide
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Frank Schmalleger
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Murder
• Types of murder
 First degree – planned, malice
aforethought
 Second degree – crime of passion
 Third degree – negligent homicide
 Felony murder – killing during another
crime
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Subculture of Violence Thesis
• Wolfgang and Ferracuti’s subculture of
violence thesis
 primary perspective used to understand
homicide victims/offenders
• The racial composition of an area alone
does not have a significant effect on
homicide rates
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
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Victim-Offender Relationship
• Parker and Smith’s typology
 Primary homicides
• most frequent, prior victim/offender
relationship, expressive crimes
 Nonprimary homicides
• no prior victim/ offender relationship,
instrumental crimes
continued on next slide
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Frank Schmalleger
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Victim-Offender Relationship
• Williams and Flemming’s two criteria
 Nature of circumstances surrounding
the homicide
 Victim-offender relationship
• Exposure-reduction theory of intimatepartner homicide
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Sibling Offenses
• Not all homicide offenders intend to kill
their victims
 Instrumental homicide may begin as a
robbery motivated by instrumental ends
 Expressive homicide may be preceded
by an argument
• Sibling offense
 the incident that initiates the homicide
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Victim Precipitation
• Focus on victim characteristics that
may have precipitated their
victimization
• Purpose is not to blame the victim but
to examine individual and situational
factors that may have contributed to
and initiated the crime
continued on next slide
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Victim Precipitation
• Especially important in homicide
because homicides frequently begin as
argument/fight between people who
know each other
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Frank Schmalleger
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Weapon Use
• Instrumentality
 The type of weapon used in an
encounter can affect whether the
encounter becomes lethal
• Availability
 Issues surrounding how access to guns
may increase their presence in all types
of interactions, including criminal ones
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
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Alcohol and Drug Use
• Goldstein – form of association of
alcohol/drugs with violent crimes
 Psychopharmacological use
 Economic compulsion
 Systemic violence
• Parker – selective disinhibition
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
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Serial Murder
• Criminal homicide involving the killing
of several victims in three or more
events
• Most serial killers are not legally insane
or medically psychotic, although many
are diagnosed as sociopaths
continued on next slide
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Frank Schmalleger
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Serial Murder
• Four-part typology




Visionary serial killers
Comfort serial killers
Hedonistic serial killers
Power seekers
continued on next slide
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Serial Murder
• Fox & Levin three-part typology
 Thrill-motivated killers
 Mission-oriented killers
 Expedience-directed killers
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Female Serial Killers
• Typically target people known to them
• Disciple killer
 Murders as the result of the influence of
a charismatic personality
continued on next slide
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Frank Schmalleger
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Female Serial Killers
• Kelleher and Kelleher’s typology of
female serialists
 Black widow
 Angel of death
• Typical career of female serial killer is
longer than that of male counterparts
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Apprehending Serial Killers
• FBI’s Violent Criminal Apprehension
Program (VICAP)
• Profiling
 Organized nonsocial killers
 Disorganized asocial killers
• Geomapping
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Mass Murder
• Killing more than three people at the
same time
• Levin and Fox’s typology differentiates
crime by motive: revenge, love, profit,
terror
continued on next slide
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Mass Murder
• Factors/elements that may lead to
mass murder:
 Predisposers
 Precipitants
 Facilitators
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Rape
• FBI adopted new gender-neutral
definition of rape in 2012
• UCR program now defines forcible rape
as “The carnal knowledge of a person
forcibly and against their will”
• Police reports rarely reveal the true
incidence of rape
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
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Feminist Perspectives
• No one feminist perspective but the
various perspectives have some
common elements:
 View gender as a social (not biological)
construct
 Patriarchal structures within society that
contribute to the privileged status of
men are inseparable from rape
continued on next slide
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Feminist Perspectives
• No one feminist perspective but the
various perspectives have some
common elements:
 View rape as an act of power or
domination
 Concept of rape culture
• Feminist perspectives have been
criticized for their often onedimensional view of masculinity
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
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Psychopathological Perspective
• This perspective is based on two
assumptions:
 Rape is the result of idiosyncratic
mental disease
 Rape often includes uncontrollable
sexual impulses
• Groth suggests that rape is connected
to issues like power and anger
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
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Integrated Theory of Rape
• Model posits that support for legitimate
violence, higher levels of gender
inequality, and social disorganization
combine to produce higher rape rates
at the state level
• Researchers have found support for
direct effect of gender inequality on
rape rates
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
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Evolutionary/Biological
Perspectives
• Focuses on motives and ends conducive
to rape
• Different traits relating to mating that
developed in males and females may
have evolved through sexual selection
continued on next slide
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Frank Schmalleger
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Evolutionary/Biological
Perspectives
• Perspective argues that the feminist
position of rape ignores the existence
of a biologically based sexual
motivation
• Criticized for justifying rape as
“natural”
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
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Typologies of Rapists
• Hazelwood and Burgess’ typology
based on motivation




Power-assertive
Power-reassurance
Anger-retaliatory
Anger-excitation
continued on next slide
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Typologies of Rapists
• Stevens’ typology based on motivations
 Role of lust a primary motive for a large
proportion of rapists
• Scully’s typology based on
rationalizations used by offenders
 Admitters
 Deniers
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Acquaintance Rape
• The majority of rapes occur when the
victim and offender have some prior
relationship
• Date rape
 acquaintance rape among adults often
occurs within the context of a dating
relationship
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Spousal Rape
• Spousal rape now illegal in all states
• Russell’s typology of men who rape
their wives
 Husbands who prefer raping their wives
to having consensual sex with them
 Husbands who enjoy both rape and
consensual sex with their wives or are
indifferent to type
continued on next slide
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Spousal Rape
• Russell’s typology of men who rape
their wives
 Husbands who prefer consensual sex
with their wives but are willing to rape
them if their sexual advances are
refused
 Husbands who might like to rape their
wives but do not act out these desires
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Rape in Prison
• 2003 Prison Rape Elimination Act
• Victims frequently reluctant to report
incidents to correctional authorities
• Sexual assaults in prison likely to have
long-term psychological effects on
victims
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Child Sexual Abuse
• Includes a variety of criminal and civil
offenses in which an adult:
 Engages in sexual activity with a minor
 Exploits a minor for purposes of sexual
gratification, or
 Exploits a minor sexually for purposes
of profit
continued on next slide
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Child Sexual Abuse
• Greatly despised but little understood
• Self-reports reveal much more abuse
than official reported
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Types of Child Sex Abusers
• Almost all pedophiles are male but
there are few other similarities
• Groth’s two-part typology
 Regressed offenders
 Fixated offenders
• Commercial sexual exploitation of
children
 adult victimizes a child sexually for
profit
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Robbery
• Robbery combines elements of violence
and property crime
• Personal robbery
 Robberies and muggings occurring in
residences
• Institutional robbery
 Robberies in commercial settings
continued on next slide
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Robbery
• The lethal potential of robbery
 Robbery carries threat of lethal injury to
the victim
 Most frequently used weapon is a
firearm
continued on next slide
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Robbery
• Criminal careers of robbers
 Most robbers are generalists with
lengthy but varied careers
 Few inmates specialize exclusively in
robbery
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Robbery and Public Transportation
• Crime prevention strategies can be
very effective in public transport
settings
• Robbery on mass transit is fairly rare
• Taxi drivers at greatest risk
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The Motivation of Robbers
• Most robberies involve little planning
• Motivations include:





Financial gain
Desire to fight
Desire to set right a perceived injustice
Desire to enhance street credibility
“Just for kicks”
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Drug Robberies
• Majority of offenders specializing in
street robberies targeted minor drug
dealers
 Acquire both money and drugs
 Drug dealers were unlikely to report the
victimization to the police
continued on next slide
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Drug Robberies
• Strategies used to minimize risk
involved in targeting drug dealers
 Intimidation
 Anonymity maintenance
 Hypervigilance
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The Gendered Nature of Robbery
• Other than rape, robbery is the most
gender-differentiated crime in the US
• Men and women both motivated by
money but differ in how they carry out
street robberies
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Aggravated Assault
• The unlawful attack by one person
upon another wherein the offender uses
a weapon or displays it in a threatening
manner, or the victim suffers obvious
or severe bodily injury
• Offender profile mirrors that of
homicide offenders
• Most aggravated assaults are
spontaneous
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Stranger Assault
• Probability of serious victimization by
strangers very low
• Likelihood varies by demographic
characteristics
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Assault within Families
• The majority of assaults involve victims
and offenders known to each other,
often in familial or intimate
relationships
continued on next slide
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Assault within Families
• Family privacy
 Family violence is difficult to research
because the family as a social institution
is private
 Discussion of violence among family
members violates this privacy
continued on next slide
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Assault within Families
• Early research found women much
more likely than men to be victims of
domestic violence
• NIBRS data suggest that slightly more
than half of all violent crimes involved
victims and offenders who were related
– most were assaults
continued on next slide
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Assault within Families
• Women are more likely to be the
victims of assaults within the family
than in the general population
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Intimate-Partner Assault
• Assaultive behavior between individuals
involved in an intimate relationship
• Separation assault
 a particularly violent response by the
male partner that occurs after a woman
leaves a violent relationship
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Workplace Violence
• Includes murder, rape, robbery, and
assault committed against persons at
work or on duty
• Types include:
 Violent acts by criminals with no other
connection with the workplace
 Violence directed at employees by those
for whom an organization provides
services
continued on next slide
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Workplace Violence
• Types include:
 Violence against coworkers, supervisors,
or managers by a present or former
employee
 Violence by someone who does not work
there but who has a personal
relationship with an employee
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Hate Crimes
• Crimes motivated by hatred, bias, or
prejudice based on the actual or
perceived race, color, religion, national
origin, ethnicity, gender, or sexual
orientation of another individual or
group
continued on next slide
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Hate Crimes
• 1990 Hate Crime Statistics Act
mandated collection of statistics on
hate crimes
 Bias against people with disabilities
added in 1994
 Violence against LGBT added in 2009
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Role of Hate Groups
• Hate groups
 KKK, Aryan Nations, National Alliance,
etc.
 Existed for many years
 Most hate crimes not committed by hate
groups
• Majority of hate crimes are committed
by teens, primarily white males, acting
alone or in groups
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Stalking
• Conduct directed at a specific person
that involves repeated visual or
physical proximity, nonconsensual
communication, and or verbal, written
or implied threats, or a combination
thereof, that would cause a reasonable
person fear
continued on next slide
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Stalking
• Antistalking laws consider the totality of
the circumstances, rather than viewing
behaviors in isolation from each other
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Types of Stalkers
•
•
•
•
•
Rejected stalkers
Intimacy-seeking stalkers
Incompetent suitors
Resentful vendetta-motivated stalkers
Predatory stalkers
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Victim-Offender Relationships in
Stalking
• Majority of victims are women, majority
of stalkers are men
• Most victims between 18-39 years of
age
continued on next slide
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Victim-Offender Relationships in
Stalking
• Majority of victims know their stalkers
 Women more likely to be stalked by
intimate partner
 Men more likely to be stalked by
stranger or acquaintance
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Stalking in Intimate-Partner
Relationships
• Stalking in intimate-partner
relationships can occur before or after
relationship ends, or both
• Other forms of violence often
accompany stalking
continued on next slide
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Stalking in Intimate-Partner
Relationships
• Men who stalked former wives more
likely than non-stalking ex-husbands to
engage in emotionally abuse and
controlling behavior towards wife
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Consequences of Stalking
• Consequences negatively affecting
victims’ lives




Increased concern about personal safety
Need for counseling
Time lost from work
Self-protective measures
continued on next slide
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Consequences of Stalking
• Women more likely to report stalking to
police than men
 Reasons for failure to report fairly
general
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Cyberstalking
• The use of electronic communications
(e-mail, the Internet) to harass
individuals
continued on next slide
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Cyberstalking
• Recommendations to help control
cyberstalking include:
 Review of all state stalking laws to
ensure they include provisions for
cyberstalking
 Amendments to federal laws
continued on next slide
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Cyberstalking
• Recommendations to help control
cyberstalking include:
 Training on cyberstalking for law
enforcement
 Web site with information on
cyberstalking
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