Self-awareness Individual Differences Emotional Intelligence Keirsey Temperaments Individualism/Collectivism Machiavellianism Locus of Control Type A Tolerance for Ambiguity Moral Maturity Emotional Intelligence • Self-awareness • Self-regulation and control; ability to delay gratification • Ability to understand others’ emotional and behavioral cues • Interpersonal skills http://ei.haygroup.com/resources/default_ieite st.htm What should Heinz do? In Europe a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging 10 times what the drug cost to make. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow money, but he could get together only about $1,000, which was ½ the cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and begged him to sell the drug at a lower price or let him pay later. But the druggist said, “No, I discovered the drug and I’m going to make money from it.” So Heinz grew desperate and began thinking about breaking into the store to steal the drug for his wife. What should Heinz do? Question 1. Would it be wrong for Heinz to break into the store? 2. Did the druggist have the right to charge that much for the drug? 3. Did Heinz have an obligation to steal the drug for his wife? 4. What if Heinz and his wife did not get along? Should Heinz steal the drug for her? 5. Suppose it wasn't Heinz's wife, but his best friend. Should Heinz steal the drug? 6. Suppose the person wasn't close to Heinz personally. Should Heinz steal the drug? 7. Suppose Heinz read about a woman in the paper. Should he steal the drug? 8. Would you steal the drug to save your own life? 9. Should Heinz be sentenced to jail if caught. Values and Moral Maturity Rokeach values inventory Kohlberg’s three levels of maturity with six stages of development – Self-centered level – (1) obedience and punishment, (2) naively egoistic orientations – Conformity level – (3) good person, (4) “doing duty” orientations – Principled level – (5) contractual legalistic, (6) conscience of principle orientations What Should Heinz Do? Question Stage and Characteristics 1. Would it be wrong for Heinz to break into the store? Not associated with any stage. 2. Did the druggist have the right to charge that much for the drug? Stage 2: Instrumental orientation; something is good because of what it can do or produce; value is placed on uniqueness and scarcity 3. Did Heinz have an obligation to steal the drug for his wife? Stage 3: Family and close relationships dictate value; something is good if it is close to you. 4. What if Heinz and his wife did not get along? Should Heinz steal the drug for her? Stage 3: Things are valued less if they are not close. 5. Suppose it wasn't Heinz's wife, but his best friend. Should Heinz steal the drug? Stage 3: Close friends are more valued than individuals who have greater social distance What Should Heinz Do? Question Stage and Characteristics 6. Suppose the person wasn't close to Heinz personally. Should Heinz steal the drug? Stage 4: Reliance on externally imposed criteria; emphasis is on displaying correct behavior in the eyes of others. 7. Suppose Heinz read about a woman in the paper. Should he steal the drug? Stage 5: Values are held for the greater good; life is a universal right; social welfare orientation. Stage 6: Sacredness of individual worth is emphasized; doing the right things for the right reasons is the predominant motive. 8. Would you steal the drug to save your own life? Stage 1: Self-preservation; consequences for the actor are the major motive. 9. Should Heinz be sentenced to jail if caught. Not associated with any stage. Scoring the Defining Issues Test Item 1 Item 2 Item 3 Item 4 Item 5 Item 6 Item 7 Item 8 Item 9 Item 10 Item 11 Item 12 The Escaped Prisoner The Doctor’s Dilemma The Newspaper Stage 3 Stage 4 NA Stage 4 Stage 6 NA Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5 Stage 5 Stage 3 Stage 4 NA Stage 2 Stage 5 NA Stage 3 Stage 6 Stage 4 Stage 5 Stage 4 Stage 5 Stage 4 Stage 4 Stage 2 Stage 4 NA Stage 5 Stage 3 Stage 3 Stage 5 Stage 5 Stage 4 Stage 3 Defining Issues Test Comparison Data LEVEL 2 3 4 5 6 Average Median % SCORING IN THIS STAGE 6.98 18.08 31.00 28.40 6.37 4.53 4.63 Changes in Moral Development Over Different Age Ranges Percent 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Stage 2 Stage 4 Stage 3 Stage 3 Stage 1 Stage 5 Stage 2 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 Age FIRO-B: Three Interpersonal Needs Inclusion – the need to establish and maintain a relationship with other people. Determines how you balance the desire to be part of the group against the desire for solitude. Control – the need to maintain a satisfactory balance of power and influence in relationships. Based on the trade-offs between the desire for structure and authority versus the desire for freedom. Affection – the need to form close personal relationships with others. Determines how you balance the desire for warmth and commitment against the desire to maintain distance and independence. FIRO-B Descriptors Inclusion Control Affection Expressed Toward Others I join other I take charge I get close people and I and I influence and personal include others. people. with people. Wanted from Others I want other people to include me. I want others to lead me or give me directions. I want people to get close and personal with me. Average FIRO-B Scores and Ranges INCLUSION CONTROL AFFECTION ROW TOTALS EXPRESSED 4 to 7 5.4 2 to 5 3.9 3 to 6 4.1 9 to 18 13.4 WANTED 5 to 8 6.5 3 to 6 4.6 3 to 6 4.6 11 to 20 15.9 COLUMN TOTALS 9 to 15 11.9 5 to 11 8.5 6 to 12 8.9 20 to 38 29.3 Type A Personality Inventory Extreme competitiveness Significant life imbalance Strong hostility/anger Urgency/impatience Application Plan Identify specific skill(s) you want to improve. Identify the circumstances in which your improvement efforts will occur. Identify the specific behaviors in which you will engage to improve your skill performance. Identify specific outcomes that will signal success. Analyze, evaluate, and record improvement in a journal.