Self-awareness
Individual Differences
Emotional Intelligence
 Keirsey Temperaments
 Individualism/Collectivism
 Machiavellianism
 Locus of Control
 Type A
 Tolerance for Ambiguity
 Moral Maturity

Emotional Intelligence
• Self-awareness
• Self-regulation and control; ability to delay
gratification
• Ability to understand others’ emotional and
behavioral cues
• Interpersonal skills
http://ei.haygroup.com/resources/default_ieite
st.htm
What should Heinz do?
In Europe a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer.
There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was
a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently
discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was
charging 10 times what the drug cost to make. He paid $200 for the
radium and charged $2,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick
woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow
money, but he could get together only about $1,000, which was ½ the
cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and begged him to
sell the drug at a lower price or let him pay later. But the druggist
said, “No, I discovered the drug and I’m going to make money from
it.” So Heinz grew desperate and began thinking about breaking into
the store to steal the drug for his wife.
What should Heinz do?
Question
1. Would it be wrong for
Heinz to break into the store?
2. Did the druggist have the
right to charge that much for
the drug?
3. Did Heinz have an
obligation to steal the drug for
his wife?
4. What if Heinz and his wife
did not get along? Should
Heinz steal the drug for her?
5. Suppose it wasn't Heinz's
wife, but his best friend.
Should Heinz steal the drug?
6. Suppose the person wasn't
close to Heinz personally.
Should Heinz steal the drug?
7. Suppose Heinz read about a
woman in the paper. Should he
steal the drug?
8. Would you steal the drug to
save your own life?
9. Should Heinz be sentenced
to jail if caught.
Values and Moral Maturity

Rokeach values inventory
 Kohlberg’s three levels of maturity with six
stages of development
– Self-centered level – (1) obedience and
punishment, (2) naively egoistic orientations
– Conformity level – (3) good person, (4) “doing
duty” orientations
– Principled level – (5) contractual legalistic, (6)
conscience of principle orientations
What Should Heinz Do?
Question
Stage and Characteristics
1. Would it be wrong for Heinz to
break into the store?
Not associated with any stage.
2. Did the druggist have the right
to charge that much for the
drug?
Stage 2: Instrumental orientation; something is good
because of what it can do or produce; value is placed
on uniqueness and scarcity
3. Did Heinz have an obligation to
steal the drug for his wife?
Stage 3: Family and close relationships dictate value;
something is good if it is close to you.
4. What if Heinz and his wife did
not get along? Should Heinz
steal the drug for her?
Stage 3: Things are valued less if they are
not close.
5. Suppose it wasn't Heinz's wife,
but his best friend. Should
Heinz steal the drug?
Stage 3: Close friends are more valued than
individuals who have greater social distance
What Should Heinz Do?
Question
Stage and Characteristics
6. Suppose the person
wasn't close to Heinz
personally. Should
Heinz steal the drug?
Stage 4: Reliance on externally imposed criteria; emphasis is on
displaying correct behavior in the eyes of others.
7. Suppose Heinz read
about a woman in the
paper. Should he steal
the drug?
Stage 5: Values are held for the greater good; life is a universal
right; social welfare orientation.
Stage 6: Sacredness of individual worth is emphasized; doing the
right things for the right reasons is the predominant motive.
8. Would you steal the drug
to save your own life?
Stage 1: Self-preservation; consequences for the actor are the
major motive.
9. Should Heinz be
sentenced to jail if
caught.
Not associated with any stage.
Scoring the Defining Issues Test
Item 1
Item 2
Item 3
Item 4
Item 5
Item 6
Item 7
Item 8
Item 9
Item 10
Item 11
Item 12
The Escaped
Prisoner
The Doctor’s
Dilemma
The Newspaper
Stage 3
Stage 4
NA
Stage 4
Stage 6
NA
Stage 3
Stage 4
Stage 3
Stage 4
Stage 5
Stage 5
Stage 3
Stage 4
NA
Stage 2
Stage 5
NA
Stage 3
Stage 6
Stage 4
Stage 5
Stage 4
Stage 5
Stage 4
Stage 4
Stage 2
Stage 4
NA
Stage 5
Stage 3
Stage 3
Stage 5
Stage 5
Stage 4
Stage 3
Defining Issues Test Comparison
Data
LEVEL
2
3
4
5
6
Average
Median
% SCORING IN
THIS STAGE
6.98
18.08
31.00
28.40
6.37
4.53
4.63
Changes in Moral Development
Over Different Age Ranges
Percent
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Stage 2
Stage 4
Stage 3
Stage 3
Stage 1
Stage 5
Stage 2
10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
Age
FIRO-B: Three Interpersonal Needs



Inclusion – the need to establish and maintain a
relationship with other people. Determines how you
balance the desire to be part of the group against
the desire for solitude.
Control – the need to maintain a satisfactory
balance of power and influence in relationships.
Based on the trade-offs between the desire for
structure and authority versus the desire for
freedom.
Affection – the need to form close personal
relationships with others. Determines how you
balance the desire for warmth and commitment
against the desire to maintain distance and
independence.
FIRO-B Descriptors
Inclusion
Control
Affection
Expressed
Toward Others
I join other
I take charge I get close
people and I
and I influence and personal
include others. people.
with people.
Wanted from
Others
I want other
people to
include me.
I want others
to lead me or
give me
directions.
I want people
to get close
and personal
with me.
Average FIRO-B Scores and Ranges
INCLUSION
CONTROL
AFFECTION
ROW
TOTALS
EXPRESSED
4 to 7
5.4
2 to 5
3.9
3 to 6
4.1
9 to 18
13.4
WANTED
5 to 8
6.5
3 to 6
4.6
3 to 6
4.6
11 to 20
15.9
COLUMN
TOTALS
9 to 15
11.9
5 to 11
8.5
6 to 12
8.9
20 to 38
29.3
Type A Personality Inventory
Extreme competitiveness
 Significant life imbalance
 Strong hostility/anger
 Urgency/impatience

Application Plan

Identify specific skill(s) you want to improve.

Identify the circumstances in which your
improvement efforts will occur.

Identify the specific behaviors in which you will
engage to improve your skill performance.

Identify specific outcomes that will signal
success.

Analyze, evaluate, and record improvement in a
journal.