The Developing Person
Through the Life Span 8e
Chapter 2– Theories of Development
1. How are theories useful?
2. What are the basic assumptions of
psychoanalytic, behaviorist and
cognitive theories?
What Theories Do
Developmental Theory
O a systematic statement of principles and
generalizations
O provides a framework for understanding how
and why people change as they grow older.
O Theories
O form basis for hypotheses
that can be tested by
research studies
O formulating _________________________ is
more difficult that finding right answers
O generate discoveries
O offer insight and guidance
by providing coherent
view
A little history….
O 16thCentury:
Preformationism
Children were
viewed as
miniature allready formed
adults.
17th Century
John Locke
Forerunner to Behaviorism
“We can train children”
Tabula rasa:
Parents could “mold” their child through
careful instruction, good examples and
rewards for good behavior.
His approach led to a change from harshness to
kindness.
Did he believe Nature or Nurture were more
important?
18th Century
O Jean Jacques Rousseau
O Child-centered approach
O Noble Savages:
O Children had a natural map for growth
O Adult training would HURT growth
O Which did he believe was more powerful?
Nature or Nurture?
18th and 19th Century
O John Tetens and Frederich Carus urged
that attention to development be extended
through adulthood.
Grand Theories
O Psychoanalytic
O Behaviorism (learning theory)
O Cognitive
O grand in that they are…
Psychoanalytic Theory
A theory of human development that
holds that irrational, unconscious
drives and motives, often originating
in childhood, underlie human
behavior.
Psychoanalytic Theory
O Psychoanalytic theory originated with
Sigmund Freud (1856– 1939)
O Introduced “stages” in childhood
O how a person experiences and resolves
conflicts determines personality and patterns
of behavior
O Did not believe in “stages” in
adulthood
Erikson – 1902-1994
O a follower of Freud,
interested in
O culture diversity
O social change
O psychological crises
Psychoanalytic Theory
Erickson’s Ideas
O Described eight
developmental stages,
each characterized by a
challenging
developmental
crisis.
O His first five stages build
on Freud’s theory; but he
also described three adult
stages.
Erickson’s Ideas:
Like Freud, believed
problems in adult life
may stem from
unresolved conflicts of
childhood
Unlike Freud, Erikson
stressed relationships
rather than sexual
urges
Psychoanalytic Theory
Erikson – 1902-1994
O
O
Described eight developmental
stages
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Initiative vs. Guilt
Industry vs. Inferiority
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Integrity vs. Despair
Behaviorism
O Watson 1878 – 1958
1. Began the American study of
behaviorism
2. Studied “directly observable”
stimuli and response behavior
3. Built upon Classical
Conditioning (Pavlov’s Dog)
Behaviorism
O Also called learning
theory as it describes
the laws and processes
by which behavior is
learned.
WE CAN
TRAIN
CHILDREN…
OR ANYONE!
Behaviorism
O Classical Conditioning:
O Adults could mold
children’s behavior by
controlling stimulusresponse associations
O Little Albert/White Rat
Behaviorism
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
O Operant Conditioning
O Behaviors can be
increased by using
reinforcers
O Reinforcers are:
O Praise
O Food
O Rewards
O Behaviors can be
decreased by
using
punishments
O Punishments are:
O Withdrawal of
privileges
O disapproval
Behaviorism
Social Learning Theory- Albert
Bandura (b. 1925)
O an extension of behaviorism that
emphasizes the influence that
other people have over a person’s
behavior, i.e. groups
O Modeling
O A person observes the actions of
others and then copies them
O Most likely to occur if model is
admired or observer is
inexperienced
Cognitive Theory
O Thoughts and
expectations
profoundly affect
action.
O Focuses on changes
in how people think
over time.
O Jean Piaget (1896–
1980)
Children develop as they
actively
____________________
___________________
the environment
Children develop in
Children’s understanding
is very ____________
from adult’s
Cognitive Theory
O Jean Piaget’s 4 Stages
O sensorimotor
O pre-operational
O concrete operational
O formal operational
20
Cognitive Theory
O Piaget loved BIG WORDS. Here are some of
them!
O Cognitive equilibrium—state of mental balance.
O Assimilation: incorporate new events into existing
schemas
O Accommodation: change ideas
O If threatened, how do we achieve equilibrium
again?
21
Cognitive Theory
Information Processing
O Not a single theory but a framework
O Inspired by how a computer works
O How people think before they respond
O How attention and thought affects mental
function
O Relationship between one person’s thinking
and another’s
Newer Theories
Sociocultural Theory
O Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934)
O Development results from a person’s interaction
with their social and cultural surroundings
O Culture is integral to development
O Apprenticeship in thinking: how cognition is
“taught” by the older and more skilled
Sociocultural Theory
The Zone of Proximal Development
O Zone of proximal
development— the
range of skills a learner
can perform with
assistance but not
independently
O learner is drawn into
learning by teacher
1.
2.
How would you teach
a 5 year old to ride a
bike?
How would you teach
a young child how to
use a nebulizer?
The Universal Perspective
Humanism
“Humans are, at the basic level, alike”
O Abraham Maslow (1908-1970
O Stresses the potential of humans for good
O All people have the same needs (p. 51)
O Emphasize what people have in common
The Universal Perspective
Humanism
“Hate the sin but love the sinner”
O Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
O Accept and respect one’s personhood
O People are innately good, but may not
always make good choices
The Universal Perspective
Evolutionary Theory
O Based on Darwin’s ideas
O Very controversial in psychological circles
O Humans are more alike than different
O Human development influenced by drives to survive
and reproduce
O Selective adaptation: process by which people
adapt to their environment
What Theories Contribute
O Eclectic perspective
O The approach taken by most
developmentalists
O Aspects of each of the various
theories of development are applied
rather than adhering exclusively to
one
What Theories Contribute
O Psychoanalytic theory has made us aware of the
importance of early childhood experiences.
O Behaviorism has shown effect of the immediate
environment on learning.
O Cognitive theory shows how intellectual process
and thinking affect actions.
O Sociocultural theory has reminded us of the
importance of culture in learning.
O Universal Theories stress that human differences
are less significant than what all humans, in every
place and era, share.
30
Download

Invitation to the Life Span by Kathleen Stassen