Chapter 15 Sexual Victimization Why Is Our Rape Rate So High? Rape: nonconsensual oral, anal, or vaginal penetration obtained by force, threat, or when victim is incapable of giving consent • U.S. rape rate higher than other countries for many years Why? Historical Perspective Rape Statistics • • • • Rape is possibly most underreported crime in U.S. U.S. rape rates peaked in 1992 and declined 13% to 22% women forced into sex at least once Women are more likely to report rape by stranger than by familiar other Who Is Raped and by Whom? Did you know… Women aged 16 – 24 are the most frequently reported victims Victims range from infancy to over 80 years old, and include boys and men Younger the victim, more likely attacker is acquaintance or relative Young people least likely to fight back or realize that they have been victimized Relationships Between Rapists and Their Victims Some Characteristics of Rapists • • • • • Young repeat-offender male Typical range of IQ and incidence of psychiatric illness Lack of internal controls such as fear, guilt, or sympathy Strong, negative, hostile attitudes about women Lack of empathy for victim’s perspective Developmental History of Rapists Two developmental factors: • Caregiver inconsistency • Sexual abuse in family How do you think these factors influence the development of rapists? Personal Reflections Have you ever used sexual coercion to have sex with someone when she or he did not want to? If so, why do you suppose you act like this? What effects might your behavior have on those you coerce? Date Rape is Real Rape! For victims of rape or child molestation, just listening to a lecture about sexual abuse can bring back bad memories and upsetting emotions. Date Rape Date rape: rape by date or acquaintance • Victim characteristics • Reporting incidence by victim type • Under- and nonreporting • Common date rape drugs Sexual Coercion Sexual coercion: act of forcing another person into unwanted sexual activity by physical, emotional or verbal pressure • Illegal in many states • “Reasonable woman” standard used to determine if sex was consensual or coerced Date Rape and Sexual Coercion Role of communication: Some unwanted sexual experiences due to poor communication skills Token resistance: women say “no” even when they mean “yes,” to avoid appearing too “easy” Compliance: agreeing to sexual activity when you do not really want to Personal Reflections Men: Have you ever ignored a date or acquaintance saying “no” to your sexual advances? Why? Women: Have you ever said “no” to a man’s sexual advances when you did not mean it? Why? If you answered “yes” what are some possible repercussions of your behavior? Is there a better way to communicate about your sexual desires? How Some Men Learn to Ignore a Woman’s “NO” Men are likely to ignore “NO” when they have had experiences with women who: • offer token resistance • have engage in compliance Does this give men with such experiences permission to rape? Personal Reflections Is a man entitled to sexual intercourse when a woman agrees to go out with him, or because he spent money on her, or because she went to his house or apartment, or because she engaged in necking with him? Men: If you answered “yes,” do you communicate these expectations to your dates before you go out? Rape in Marriage History • Early American justice system followed English common law • Today, all 50 states make marital rape crime Statistics • 10% to 14% of married women are victimized • Marital rapes are often more violent than rapes by other acquaintances Gang Rape Causes • Expression of power, attempts to control others, anger • Expression of machismo • Diffused individual responsibility • Demonstration of loyalty Cross-Cultural Perspectives • Rape-prone societies • Rape-free societies • Ethnic differences in U.S. Statutory Rape Laws make it illegal for Mentally handicapped are protected by these laws, as being unable to provide informed, legal consent adult to have sexual intercourse with anyone under “age of consent,” which varies from state to state, from ages 14 - 18 When both partners are minors, difference in age is often considered Same-Sex Sexual Assault and Coercion Prison Rape: Heterosexual or homosexual? • Both perpetrators and victims of prison rape otherwise consider themselves to be heterosexual Other Rape Experiences • • About half of male victims were assaulted during childhood; many were gang raped by boys they knew 12% to 27% of gay men report being raped in dating situation Can a Man be Raped by a Woman? Male victims may or may get an erection while feeling great fear or terror of sexual assault Some women kidnap (with drugs, weapons, or accomplices) man and then force various sexual acts on him, including intercourse Victims suffer in all the ways that female victims do Additional issues related to masculinity and sexual response to unwanted sex Explanations of Rape: Psychodynamic Theories Rape is an act of violence; sex is the weapon! • • • • Power rapes Anger rapes Sadistic rapes Opportunistic rapes Personal Reflections Do you ever use sex to express power, dominance, control, or anger? If so, under what circumstances? Why do you use sex as an outlet for these desires and emotions? Feminist (Sexual Script) Theories Rape is most common in societies that glorify violence by men • Traditional sexual script supports and condones male sexual coercion against women • Men who rape behave in stereotypic gender roles (dominant, competitive, see women as adversaries) and feel entitled to sex Social Learning Theories Early life family experiences create sexual norm • • Adults model behaviors and attitudes learned in childhood Extremely conservative stereotypes about relationships between men and women support myths about rape that legitimize violence against women Evolutionary (Sociobiological) Theories Men have genetic tendency to rape • Sex with many partners assure that man will maximize his reproductive potential • Evolution has favored sexually aggressive men by production of more offspring Comprehensive Theories A Quick Question True or False? Today, most researchers recognize that there are probably multiple paths to sexual aggression, motivated by both sex and power to differing degrees. Comprehensive Theories Malamuth’s six predictors: Sexual arousal Dominance motivation Hostility toward women Aggressive toward women Antisocial personality Promiscuous experience Comprehensive Theories Theories below agree on multiple causes for rape • Marshall and Barbaree • Ward and Beech Take a minute to review each of these theories. Rape Myths: Widespread Mistaken Beliefs About Rape Myth 1: Women who are raped usually provoked it by their dress and behavior. Myth 2: Women subconsciously want to be raped. Myth 3: No woman can be raped if she truly does not want it. Myth 4: Women frequently make false accusations of rape. Reactions to Rape Post-rape posttraumatic stress disorder: Acute phase and long-term reorganization • Long-term stress-related illnesses • High suicide rates Rape Counseling Some victims attempt to control their lives again via high-risk sexual behaviors Many victims initially suppress their feelings Symptoms may emerge months or even years after incident Personal Reflections Have you ever been the victim of rape or sexual coercion? If so, has it affected how you feel about yourself and your relationships? If it has affected you in any way (including leaving you with any sense of self-blame), have you ever sought counseling? Reactions of the Partner • Male partners • Partner and/or family members who believe in rape myths • Friends and family What Happens When a Rape Is Reported? Contact rape victim advocate program, and/or specially trained police, and medical personnel Have “rape kit” medical examination as soon as possible Seek support and/or guidance Preventing Rape • Legal deterrents • Educating potential victims • Social systems Sexual Victimization, Pregnancy and STIs Can you fill in the blanks? _____less of rape victims receive medical care after the attack. 32,000 pregnancies a year result from rape of women 18 and older; many more pregnancies occur from the rape of _____ girls who are less likely to be using birth control pills. Many rape victims (including child victims) acquire an _____ (gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, HPV). The risk of getting HIV during a rape is _____. Personal Reflections Is a tougher law-and-order approach to rape needed? Should more women become prepared to deal with attempted rape? Will rape ever stop being a serious problem in our society? Why or why not? Sexual Harassment General definitions • • • EEOC Definition of Sexual Harassment in the Workplace Behaviors Causes The Reasonable Woman Standard Do you suppose this man would behave the same way with a male employee or co-worker? Responses to Harassment Victims display a wide variety of responses and feelings • Retaliation tied to rejected advances • Changing jobs Some Causes of Sexual Harassment Power-based view What do you think might be included in this view? Sexual Harassment of College Students Who • • Harassment by instructor Harassment by peers Consequences • Change majors or drop out Title IX of U.S. Education Code • School can be held liable if sexual harassment on campus ignored How to Deal with Sexual Harassment Assertiveness at first sign of inappropriate behavior Firm “no” expresses right to personal dignity Communicate with the harasser, document incidents and list witnesses If the behavior does not stop, report it to the company or school authority Consider reporting to the EEOC or filing a civil suit if retaliation results Personal Reflections Have you ever been the victim of sexual harassment by a supervisor, employer, or instructor? Did you report it? If not, why not? Are you familiar with your campus’ procedures for dealing with sexual harassment? If you are not familiar with the procedures, where can you to to find out? Sexual Abuse of Children Definitions • Children • Abuse Prevalence • Who • How much Outcomes • Depends on kinds and severity What is Child Sexual Abuse? Child sexual abuse: sexual contact with children • Prevalence • Power differences between adults and children • Effects Who Molests Children? • Personally immature pedophile • Regressive pedophile • Aggressive pedophiles Who Molests Children? Majority of molesters are adults known to child Preference molesters Situational molesters No single personality type among pedophiles To Catch a Predator Elaborate “sting” operations and other investigations have discovered pedophiles in all walks of life. Chris Hansen confronts an online pedophile. Personal Reflections Are you ever sexually aroused by children? If so, have you ever sought counseling? If you have not sought counseling, why not? Would it be better to seek counseling before you acted on an urge, or afterwards? Female Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse When Adult Women Have Sexual Relations with Teen Boys Child Pornography • • By mid 1990s, downloading child porn relatively common practice In 1982, U.S. Supreme Court ruled publishers and distributors of child porn can be prosecuted for child abuse Remember: Anyone who participates in child pornography in any way can be prosecuted! Effects of Abuse on Children No single post-sexual abuse syndrome for victims of child abuse! No detectable problems Few symptoms Major psychiatric symptoms Posttraumatic stress disorder Effects of Abuse on Children Greatest harm when abuse was frequent or longlasting, involved force, threats, and penetration OR Greatest harm when abuser is father or step-father and/or where little support received from mother What do you think? Why? Effects of Abuse on Children Adults molested as children report: • • • • • • • anxiety and fear panic disorders suicidal behaviors sexual dysfunction drug/alcohol abuse eating disorders other long-term effects Recovered (False?) Memory Syndrome Some recovered (formerly repressed) memories are true Other recovered memories are false Family Incest • • • Sibling-sibling incest Parent-child incest Grandparent-child incest Incestuous Inbreeding: A Universal Taboo? Four theories of origin of incest taboos: • • • • Inbreeding Close physical contact during children and attraction loss Reduction of wealth and power concentration Social alliances development Cross-Cultural Perspectives What have you learned about incest: • • • • In royal families In some Muslim areas In some Hindus settings In China and sub-Saharan Africa Can you assume that all families from these areas engage in incest? Why? Why not? Family Dynamics of Abuse All-powerful, authoritarian man separates family from outside world Boundaries within family are blurred Independent thoughts and feelings considered destructive Mother fails to protect children Children grow up with view incest is normal and repeat pattern as parents Preventing and Dealing with Child Sexual Abuse Educate self and child Be open to discussions about sex If child is molested or approached, contact police Let child know it was not his/her fault, and help child to feel safe Watch for significant changes in behavior Prosecution of Sexual Offenders • • • • • • Rape prosecution rate Rape-shield laws DNA testing technology Videotaped versus face-to-face testimony Sexual predator laws Megan’s law Therapy for Rapists Challenges • Rapists usually deny or minimize offenses, making therapy difficult Approaches • Combination cognitive techniques, traditional behavioral techniques and anti-androgen hormone treatment • Empathy training and treatment Therapy for Child Molesters Challenges • Pedophilia may be incurable but treatable Approaches • Family systems approach for incest • For juvenile offenders treatment is often effective • Pedophilia treatment includes drug therapy, comprehensive cognitive/behavioral/social therapy, and long-term supervision Therapy for Victims Initial therapy often geared to posttraumatic stress Recovery Eventually, victim overcomes any selfblame Abusefocused cognitive therapy employed Personal Reflections As you have learned, several states have passed sexual predator laws which require that molesters identified as career pedophiles must be confined for life. Our society will no doubt continue to debate this sensitive issue, weighing the rights of offenders against the rights of victims and future victims, for many years to come. What do you think is best?