Chapter Introduction Section 1: Taking In and Storing Information Section 2: Retrieving Information Chapter Objectives · Section 1 Taking In and Storing Information Describe the three processes involved in memory: encoding, storage, and retrieval. Chapter Objectives · Section 2 The Senses Understand that stored memory can be retrieved by recognition, recall, and relearning. Main Idea There are three processes involved in memory: encoding, storage, and retrieval. Vocabulary • memory • encoding • storage • retrieval • sensory memory • short-term memory • maintenance rehearsal • chunking • semantic memory • episodic memory • declarative memory • procedural memory Objectives • Explain the three processes of memory. • Describe the information-processing model of memory. How many windows were in your first bedroom? A. None B. One C. Two D. Three or more 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D The Processes of Memory • Memory is the input, storage, and retrieval of what has been learned or experienced. • Three steps: – Encoding – Storage – Retrieval The Processes of Memory If you’re studying for a vocabulary test and you create a sentence in order to remember the word, which type of code are you using? A. Visual D 0% A D. All of the above C C. Acoustic A. A B. B C.0%C 0% 0% D. D B B. Semantic Three Stages of Memory • The three types of memory: – Sensory memory • prevents you from being overwhelmed • gives you some decision time • allows for continuity and stability in your world Stages of Memory Three Stages of Memory (cont.) – Short-term memory • Maintenance rehearsal • Chunking – Long-term memory Spot the Real Penny Using Short-Term Memory Three Stages of Memory (cont.) • Four types of long-term memory: – Semantic memory – Episodic memory – Declarative memory – Procedural memory Three Systems of Memory The ability to repeat the last sentence someone says although you are only half-listening is which type of memory? A. Sensory A 0% C C. Long-term A. A B. B C. 0% C 0% B B. Short-term Memory and the Brain • Two theories regarding the physiological changes that occur when we learn something: – A change in the neuronal structure of nerves occurs. – Learning is based on molecular or chemical changes in the brain. Memory and the Brain (cont.) • Procedural memory involves activity in an area of the brain called the striatum. • Declarative memories result from activity in the hippocampus and the amygdala. Memory Centers in the Brain Which part of the brain is responsible for emotional associations? A. The Amygdala B. The Cortex C. The Thalamus D. The Hippocampus 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Main Idea Stored memory can be retrieved by recognition, recall, and relearning. Vocabulary • recognition • decay • recall • interference • reconstructive processes • elaborative rehearsal • confabulation • mnemonic devices • schemas • eidetic memory Objectives • Identify several memory retrieval processes. • Explain the processes involved in forgetting. Do you remember the name of your first-grade teacher? A. Yes B. No A. A B. B 0% A 0% B Recognition • Recognition • A single item of information may be indexed under several headings so that it can be reached in many ways. With the content being the same, which type of test do you feel is easier? A. Multiple Choice B. Short Answer C. Essay D. Verbal 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Recall • Recall involves a person’s knowledge, attitudes, and expectations. • Recall is influenced by reconstructive processes. • Adding addition information not in memory is called confabulation. Recall (cont.) • Our memories may be reconstructed in terms of schemas • Eidetic memory • State-dependent learning occurs when you recall information easily when you are in the same physiological or emotional state or setting you were when you originally encoded the information. Elizabeth Loftus Filling in “gaps” in a story would be an example of what? A. Schemas B. Eidetic memory 0% D A 0% A B C 0% D C D. Confabulation A. B. C. 0% D. B C. Recall Relearning • Relearning is a measure of both declarative and procedural memory. Have you ever tried to relearn something and found it easier the second time around? A. Yes B. No C. Sometimes D. Not sure 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Forgetting • When information that once entered longterm memory is unable to be retrieved, it is said to be forgotten. • Forgetting may involve: – Decay – Interference – Repression Forgetting (cont.) • Two kinds of blockage: – Proactive – Retroactive Forgetting (cont.) • Amnesia—a loss of memory that may occur after a blow to the head, brain damage, drug use, or severe psychological stress. • Infant amnesia—the relative lack of early declarative memories. Forgetting (cont.) • Theories for why we do not remember being young: – Freud thought that memories are repressed because of the emotional traumas of infancy. – Others believe that because infants do not yet understand language, their memories are nonverbal, whereas later memories are verbal. Forgetting (cont.) – Others claim that the hippocampus may not be mature enough in infancy to spark memories. – Or that infants have not yet developed a sense of self to experience memories. Which of the following is more likely after an accident? A. Decay B. Interference C. Repression D. Amnesia 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Improving Memory • Techniques for improving memory are based on efficient organization of the things you learn and on chunking information into easily handled packages. • Elaborative rehearsal Improving Memory (cont.) • Ways to protect a memory from interference: – Overlearn it. – Avoid studying similar material together. – Use distributed practice, or study a little at a time. Improving Memory (cont.) • Mnemonic devices • Examples: – The Method of Loci – “Thirty days has September” – “Every Good Boy Does Fine” – Mental pictures Of the following, which do you find more effective in remembering information for a test? A. Elaborative rehearsal B. Distributed practice C. Mnemonic devices 0% A A. A B. B C.0% C B 0% C Stages of Memory Psychologists often compare human memory to a computer; however, unlike a computer, people can never fill their long-term memories so full that there is no room left for storage. Spot the Real Penny Which is the genuine penny among the fakes? Even though you live in the United States and probably see hundreds of pennies a week, it is difficult to identify the real one. Mere reception, such as seeing something over and over again, does not guarantee a strong memory. Using Short-Term Memory Glance quickly at the left figure in this pair, then look away. How many dots did you see? Now do the same with the right figure. You were probably surer and more accurate in your answer for the right figure. Three Systems of Memory The moment you pay attention to information in sensory memory, that information enters short-term memory. Then that information remains in short-term memory for a few seconds. If you rehearse that information, it stays; if you do not, it disappears. Memory Centers in the Brain Researchers have identified the parts of the brain that are involved in memory. The Processes of Memory Memory involves three processes. Elizabeth Loftus 1944– “One of the things that we know about memory for very upsetting experiences, traumatic experiences, is that the memory does not work like a videotape recorder.” Chapter Concepts Transparencies Chunking Select a transparency to view. memory: the input, storage, and retrieval of what has been learned or experienced encoding: the transforming of information so the nervous system can process it storage: the process by which information is maintained over a period of time retrieval: the process of obtaining information that has been stored in memory sensory memory: very brief memory storage immediately following initial stimulation of a receptor short-term memory: memory that is limited in capacity to about seven items and in duration by the subject’s active rehearsal maintenance rehearsal: a system for remembering that involves repeating information to one-self without attempting to find meaning in it chunking: the process of grouping items to make them easier to remember semantic memory: knowledge of language, including its rules, words, and meanings episodic memory: chronological retention of the events of one’s life declarative memory: stored knowledge of learned skills that does not require conscious recollection procedural memory: permanent storage of learned skills that does not require conscious recollection recognition: memory retrieval in which a person identifies an object, idea, or situation as one he or she has or has not experienced before recall: memory retrieval in which a person reconstructs previously learned material reconstructive processes: the alteration of a recalled memory that may be simplified, enriched, or distorted, depending on an individual’s experiences, attitudes, or inferences confabulation: the act of filling in memory gaps schemas: conceptual frameworks a person uses to make sense of the world eidetic memory: the ability to remember with great accuracy visual information on the basis of short-term exposure decay: fading away of memory over time interference: blockage of a memory by previous or subsequent memories or loss of a retrieval cue elaborative rehearsal: the linking of new information to material that is already known mnemonic devices: techniques for using associations to memorize and retrieve information To use this Presentation Plus! product: Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide. Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Transparency button from the Chapter Menu or Chapter Introduction slides to access the Concept Transparencies that are relevant to this chapter. From within a section, click on this button to access the relevant Daily Focus Skills Transparency. Click the Return button in a feature to return to the main presentation. Click the Psychology Online button to access online textbook features. Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show. Click the Help button to access this screen. Links to Presentation Plus! features such as Profiles in Psychology and relevant figures from your textbook are located at the bottom of relevant screens. This slide is intentionally blank.