Chapter Introduction
Section 1: Taking In and
Storing
Information
Section 2: Retrieving
Information
Chapter Objectives ·
Section 1
Taking In and Storing
Information
Describe the three processes
involved in memory: encoding,
storage, and retrieval.
Chapter Objectives ·
Section 2
The Senses
Understand that stored memory
can be retrieved by recognition,
recall, and relearning.
Main Idea
There are three processes involved in memory:
encoding, storage, and retrieval.
Vocabulary
• memory
• encoding
• storage
• retrieval
• sensory memory
• short-term memory
• maintenance
rehearsal
• chunking
• semantic memory
• episodic memory
• declarative memory
• procedural memory
Objectives
• Explain the three processes of memory.
• Describe the information-processing model
of memory.
How many windows were in your first
bedroom?
A. None
B. One
C. Two
D. Three or more
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
The Processes of Memory
• Memory is the input, storage, and retrieval
of what has been learned or experienced.
• Three steps:
– Encoding
– Storage
– Retrieval
The Processes of
Memory
If you’re studying for a vocabulary
test and you create a sentence in
order to remember the word, which
type of code are you using?
A. Visual
D
0%
A
D. All of the above
C
C. Acoustic
A. A
B. B
C.0%C 0%
0%
D. D
B
B. Semantic
Three Stages of Memory
• The three types of memory:
– Sensory memory
• prevents you from being overwhelmed
• gives you some decision time
• allows for continuity and stability in your
world
Stages of Memory
Three Stages of Memory (cont.)
– Short-term memory
• Maintenance rehearsal
• Chunking
– Long-term memory
Spot the Real Penny
Using Short-Term
Memory
Three Stages of Memory (cont.)
• Four types of long-term memory:
– Semantic memory
– Episodic memory
– Declarative memory
– Procedural memory
Three Systems of
Memory
The ability to repeat the last sentence
someone says although you are only
half-listening is which type of
memory?
A. Sensory
A
0%
C
C. Long-term
A. A
B. B
C.
0% C 0%
B
B. Short-term
Memory and the Brain
• Two theories regarding the physiological
changes that occur when we learn
something:
– A change in the neuronal structure of
nerves occurs.
– Learning is based on molecular or
chemical changes in the brain.
Memory and the Brain (cont.)
• Procedural memory involves activity in an
area of the brain called the striatum.
• Declarative memories result from activity
in the hippocampus and the amygdala.
Memory Centers in
the Brain
Which part of the brain is responsible
for emotional associations?
A. The Amygdala
B. The Cortex
C. The Thalamus
D. The Hippocampus
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
Main Idea
Stored memory can be retrieved by
recognition, recall, and relearning.
Vocabulary
• recognition
• decay
• recall
• interference
• reconstructive
processes
• elaborative
rehearsal
• confabulation
• mnemonic devices
• schemas
• eidetic memory
Objectives
• Identify several memory retrieval processes.
• Explain the processes involved in forgetting.
Do you remember the name of your
first-grade teacher?
A. Yes
B. No
A. A
B. B
0%
A
0%
B
Recognition
• Recognition
• A single item of information may be
indexed under several headings so that it
can be reached in many ways.
With the content being the same, which
type of test do you feel is easier?
A. Multiple Choice
B. Short Answer
C. Essay
D. Verbal
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
Recall
• Recall involves a person’s knowledge,
attitudes, and expectations.
• Recall is influenced by reconstructive
processes.
• Adding addition information not in memory
is called confabulation.
Recall (cont.)
• Our memories may be reconstructed in
terms of schemas
• Eidetic memory
• State-dependent learning occurs when you
recall information easily when you are in
the same physiological or emotional state
or setting you were when you originally
encoded the information.
Elizabeth Loftus
Filling in “gaps” in a story would be
an example of what?
A. Schemas
B. Eidetic memory
0%
D
A
0%
A
B
C
0%
D
C
D. Confabulation
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
C. Recall
Relearning
• Relearning is a measure of both
declarative and procedural memory.
Have you ever tried to relearn
something and found it easier the
second time around?
A. Yes
B. No
C. Sometimes
D. Not sure
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
Forgetting
• When information that once entered longterm memory is unable to be retrieved, it is
said to be forgotten.
• Forgetting may involve:
– Decay
– Interference
– Repression
Forgetting (cont.)
• Two kinds of blockage:
– Proactive
– Retroactive
Forgetting (cont.)
• Amnesia—a loss of memory that may occur
after a blow to the head, brain damage, drug
use, or severe psychological stress.
• Infant amnesia—the relative lack of early
declarative memories.
Forgetting (cont.)
• Theories for why we do not remember
being young:
– Freud thought that memories are
repressed because of the emotional
traumas of infancy.
– Others believe that because infants do
not yet understand language, their
memories are nonverbal, whereas later
memories are verbal.
Forgetting (cont.)
– Others claim that the hippocampus may
not be mature enough in infancy to spark
memories.
– Or that infants have not yet developed a
sense of self to experience memories.
Which of the following is more likely
after an accident?
A. Decay
B. Interference
C. Repression
D. Amnesia
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
Improving Memory
• Techniques for improving memory are
based on efficient organization of the
things you learn and on chunking
information into easily handled packages.
• Elaborative rehearsal
Improving Memory (cont.)
• Ways to protect a memory from
interference:
– Overlearn it.
– Avoid studying similar material together.
– Use distributed practice, or study a little
at a time.
Improving Memory (cont.)
• Mnemonic devices
• Examples:
– The Method of Loci
– “Thirty days has September”
– “Every Good Boy Does Fine”
– Mental pictures
Of the following, which do you find more
effective in remembering information for
a test?
A. Elaborative rehearsal
B. Distributed practice
C. Mnemonic devices
0%
A
A. A
B. B
C.0% C
B
0%
C
Stages of Memory
Psychologists often compare human memory to a computer; however, unlike a
computer, people can never fill their long-term memories so full that there is no room
left for storage.
Spot the Real Penny
Which is the genuine penny among the
fakes? Even though you live in the United
States and probably see hundreds of
pennies a week, it is difficult to identify the
real one. Mere reception, such as seeing
something over and over again, does not
guarantee a strong memory.
Using Short-Term Memory
Glance quickly at the left figure in this pair, then look away. How many dots did you
see? Now do the same with the right figure. You were probably surer and more
accurate in your answer for the right figure.
Three Systems of Memory
The moment you pay attention to information in sensory memory, that information
enters short-term memory. Then that information remains in short-term memory for a
few seconds. If you rehearse that information, it stays; if you do not, it disappears.
Memory Centers
in the Brain
Researchers have
identified the parts of
the brain that are
involved in memory.
The Processes of Memory
Memory involves three processes.
Elizabeth Loftus
1944–
“One of the things that
we know about
memory for very
upsetting experiences,
traumatic experiences,
is that the memory
does not work like a
videotape recorder.”
Chapter Concepts
Transparencies
Chunking
Select a transparency to view.
memory: the input, storage, and retrieval
of what has been learned or experienced
encoding: the transforming of
information so the nervous system can
process it
storage: the process by which
information is maintained over a period
of time
retrieval: the process of obtaining
information that has been stored in
memory
sensory memory: very brief memory
storage immediately following initial
stimulation of a receptor
short-term memory: memory that is
limited in capacity to about seven items
and in duration by the subject’s active
rehearsal
maintenance rehearsal: a system for
remembering that involves repeating
information to one-self without attempting
to find meaning in it
chunking: the process of grouping items
to make them easier to remember
semantic memory: knowledge of
language, including its rules,
words, and meanings
episodic memory: chronological
retention of the events of one’s life
declarative memory: stored knowledge
of learned skills that does not require
conscious recollection
procedural memory: permanent storage
of learned skills that does not require
conscious recollection
recognition: memory retrieval in which a
person identifies an object, idea, or
situation as one he or she has or has not
experienced before
recall: memory retrieval in which a
person reconstructs previously learned
material
reconstructive processes: the
alteration of a recalled memory that may
be simplified, enriched, or distorted,
depending on an individual’s
experiences, attitudes, or inferences
confabulation: the act of filling in
memory gaps
schemas: conceptual frameworks a
person uses to make sense of the world
eidetic memory: the ability to remember
with great accuracy visual information on
the basis of short-term exposure
decay: fading away of memory over time
interference: blockage of a memory by
previous or subsequent memories or loss
of a retrieval cue
elaborative rehearsal: the linking of new
information to material that is already
known
mnemonic devices: techniques for
using associations to memorize and
retrieve information
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