SELF-TEST Why do people commit crime? Brainstorm reasons for criminal behavior based on these three catagories: Social Economic Biological Nature vs. Nurture debate Well you look like a duck, quack like a duck but….Who brought you up? What do people become criminals? NATURE vs. NURTURE NATURE: Criminals are born, not made Biological Theories – Genetic or Physiological make-up leads to criminal behavior. Personality Theories – certain types inclined to crime Social Learning – learned criminal ways: Cultural Transmission Theory NURTURE: NATURE THEORIES About what makes someone a Criminal Old School nature theories about criminals: Cesare Lombroso (1876) criminals are a separate species. Theory: shape of the head and face determined the "born criminal". CRIMINAL HEADS ACCORDING TO LOMBROSO CRIMINAL BODY TYPE??? ACTUAL CRIMINALS SMALLISH HEADS? Another Old School NATURE Theory: William Sheldon Body types determined criminality. 1. Endomorphic (fat ) sociable and relaxed. 2. Ectomorphic (thin) are introverted and restrained. LEAST LIKELY TO BE CRIMINALS 3. Mesomorphic = CRIMINAL (muscular and aggressive) . IDENTIFY SOME FLAWS IN THIS THEORY? NATURE: MODERN THEORIES Neurophysiological causes PET (brain) scans done on impulsive killers showed: Damage in the pre-frontal cortex, which controls impulsive behavior. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TtOQnM3LQkE Charles Whitman sniper Neurochemical The brain’s chemistry can be influenced by diet, food additives, or pollution. The TWINKIE DEFENSE: A psychiatrist claimed that a poor diet could intensify mood swings as part of “diminished mental capacity”. Neurochemical STEROIDS? Can the abuse of steroids, which increase testosterone levels, can cause people to become extremely violent? ("roid rage"). NO direct link between steroids and violence has not been made. http://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=hN7rf4Mm1QA Twin studies: Genetic influence on crime IDENTICAL TWINS (same genes and gender) that have been separated at birth and brought up separately have been studied The degree of similarity between two twins is known as the concordance rate. This rate was compared with FRATERNAL twins who are brought up separately Concordance rate for IDENTICAL twins: 55% FRATERNAL twins: 17% Psychopaths and Sociopaths SIMILARITIES: Both are dangerous, impulsive, and criminally minded Both have definable mental disorders PRIMARY DIFFERENCE: Generally Speaking • PSYCHOPATHS ARE BORN (NATURE) • SOCIOPATHS ARE MADE (NURTURE) Sociopaths (NURTURE): Are capable of EMPATHY and can form meaningful personal relationships Common sociological factors such as • Abused as children, • running with the wrong crowd, • Poverty • Parents are criminals / neglectful Personal Characteristics: Easy to spot: socially inadequate, agitated, don’t fit in, spontaneous ill-thought-out crimes Psychopaths (NATURE) Psychopaths show some of these characteristics: •More organized in crimes •Less easily recognized – appear “normal” •Cunning / ability to deceive / manipulative •Superficially charming •Lack of EMPATHY •Lack of REMORSE / SHAME •Takes pleasure in the suffering of others (including family) •Flat affect (do not display emotion / fake emotion) •Extreme Narcissism Mental Disorders related to Psychopathy (and to a lesser degree SOCIOPATHS) 1. CONDUCT DISORDER (diagnosed before age 15) Criteria: lack of adherence to social norms (bullies, threatens, fights). Physically cruel to others Animal Cruelty Has forced someone into sexual activity Setting fires to cause harm and damage Lies, cheats, steals 2. ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER Diagnosed over age18; frequent diagnosis of serial killers, rapists, thrill killers CRITERIA: •Violates norms (repeatedly arrested) •Lies, deceives for profit or pleasure •Impulsivity •Irritability and aggressiveness •Reckless disregard for safety of self or others •Irresponsibility (work, repayment of debts) •lack of remorse, indifferent to the suffering of others Self-Test What is the difference between a psychopath and a sociopath? What diagnosis must have been made to be labeled Antisocial Personality Disorder? What is the difference between a ORGANIZED and DISORGANIZED serial killer? Serial Killers Murder three or more victims, but each is killed on separate occasions usually select their victims cooling off periods between murders plan their crimes carefully Serial Killers Most serial killers will fall into a pattern: modus operandi (method), location, victim type, motive, etc. The patterns of activities often allow police to apprehend the killer. Serial killers are often described as ‘normal’, ‘very chatty’ and ‘a good neighbor’. Serial Killers Typical serial Killers are: Predominantly male White Within their twenties or thirties Middle class Kill within their ethnic group Types of serial killers (patterns) Organized Characteristics: Socially competent (may lead a “normal” life) Intelligent Planner Generally targets strangers Uses restraints Has sex with their victims Follows their crimes in the media Returns to scene Very difficult to catch Types of serial killers (patterns) Disorganized Characteristics: Socially immature May know victims Kills spontaneously Often sexually inhibited Harsh childhood discipline. Lives alone Sloppy crime scene / evidence present Shows little interest in the media Easier to catch than the organized killer Women who commit Crime •Men •Why commit about 80% of all Crime / 93% of all murders do women commit so few murders? •Theory: Women’s orbital frontal region of the brain larger in women = more ability to control aggression. Women serial killers: RARE Psychopathy: “Anti-Social Personality Disorder” RARE IN WOMEN 1. “Angel of Mercy / Death” Nurses or health care workers who kill their patients 2. Mothers: Münchausen syndrome by proxy Deliberately cause injury or illness to another person (most often his or her child / 90% WOMEN), to gain attention or some other benefit. 3. BLACK WIDOWS: Husband murders; favorite method: Poisoning Freud: Criminals are like Children Children should progress from: 1. Pleasure principle (id = need instant gratification) 2. Reality principle (where the ego / self control is dominant). . Freud: stable home environment necessary to make the transition. Research has supported the fact that most criminals come from unstable homes. Child abuse and Crime Abused or neglected children 59% more likely to be arrested as a juvenile One study showed 76% of the serial rapists were abused when young. Only about 10% of abused children go on to commit crimes. Juvenile “Delinquency” Many Juvenile offenders are diagnosed with CONDUCT DISORDER Causes of juvenile delinquency: Poor parenting / upbringing Psychological disorders Low intelligence Every state makes their own rules with regard to who is a juvenile Juvenile Courts Juvenile courts less formal than adult courts Early “JD’s” were sent to “REFORM SCHOOL” a type of prison school for troubled kids Their goal was to REHABILITATE not PUNISH Goal of Juvenile Justice Landmark Court Cases regarding Juveniles: In Re Gault (1967) 15 year old boy (Gault) is arrested for making lewd phone calls Held by the police, questioned, and sentenced (6 years!) with no trial or input from his parents Supreme Court: Juveniles have the same rights as adults! Right to counsel Right to confront your accusers Right to remain Silent Roper v. Simmons (2005) Supreme Court rules: defendants under the age of 18 cannot be executed Violates the CRUEL AND UNUSUAL punishment prohibition of the 8th Amendment. New Jersey Agency: NJ Juvenile Justice Commission Emphasizes accountability and offers programs to create independent, productive and law abiding citizens. DIVERSION: Goal is to avoid incarceration Top Juvenile crime in NJ: Robbery Juveniles: 59% of Arson arrests Bringing down organized Crime R.I.C.O R.I.C.O Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act 1970: RICO created to break up “organized crime” THE MAFIA MAFIA bosses did not ever directly commit crime. HOW DO YOU PROSECUTE THEM? Charge them under RICO Today RICO is used to prosecute any group that act illegally.