CstM 301 - Management & Organization
management learning past to present
classical management…
classical approaches
assumption: people are rational
scientific
management
administrative
principle
bureaucratic
organization
Frederick Taylor
Henri Fayol
Max Weber
scientific management…
four guiding action principles…
• develop for every job a
“science”
• carefully select workers
• carefully train workers &
provide incentives
• support workers through
planning
motion studies
Frederick Taylor
administrative principles…
rules or duties of management
•
•
•
•
•
foresight
organization
command
coordination
control
Henri Fayol
bureaucratic organization…
defining characteristics
• clear division of labor
• clear hierarchy of authority
• formal rules and procedures
• impersonality
• careers based on merit
Max Weber
behavioral management…
organizations as
communities
theory x and
theory y
Mary Parker
Follett
Douglas
McGregor
human resource approaches
assumption: people are social &
self-actualizing
hawthorne
studies
theory of human
needs
personality and
organization
Elton Mayo
Abraham Maslov
Chris Argyris
organizations as communities…
managers & workers labor in harmony
• no domination
• freedom to talk
• reconcile conflicts
combine talents for the greater good
managers job…
• help people cooperate
• achieve integration of efforts
Mary Parker
the hawthorne studies…
original purpose of study
social setting & human relations
• group atmosphere
• participative supervision
employee attitudes & group processes
• negative & positive impact
lessons learned
• the hawthorne effect
• human relations movement
Elton Mayo
theory of human needs…
self-actualizing needs
highest level: need for self-fulfillment; to grow & use
abilities to fullest & most creative extent
esteem needs
need for esteem in the eyes of others; need for
respect, prestige, recognition; need for self-esteem,
personal sense of competence, mastery
social needs
need for love, affection, sense of belongingness in
one’s relationships with other people
safety needs
need for security, protection and stability in the
events of day-to-day life
physiological needs
most basic need of all human needs; need for
biological maintenance; food, water & physical wellbeing
theory x & theory y…
theory x assumes people…
• dislike work
• lack ambition
• act irresponsibly
• prefer to be led
theory y assumes people…
• are willing to work
• like responsibility
• are self-directed & creative
self-fulfilling prophecy…
Douglas McGregor
theory of adult personality…
highest productivity is a result of…
• treating people positively
• as responsible adults
mismatch between management
practice & mature adult personalities…
• absenteeism
• turnover
• apathy alienation
• low morale
Chris Argyris
modern management…
quantitative
analysis & tools
organizations as
systems
contingency
thinking
modern approaches
assumption: maybe there’s another way…
knowledge
management
quality
management
evidence-based
management
quantitative analysis & tools…
Quality
control
Inventory
management
Queuing
theory
Supply chain
management
Value chain
analysis
Linear
programming
The scientific
applications of
mathematical
techniques to
management
problems
Network
models
organizations as systems…
contingency thinking…
changing & complex
bureaucratic
structures
work well
environment
stable & uncomplicated
flexible
structures
work well
quality management…
w. edwards demming
• total quality management
joseph juran
• continuous improvement
• iso certification
knowledge management &
organizational learning…
intellectual capital
change and improve
mental
models
personal
mastery
systems
thinking
shared
vision
team
learning
evidence-based management…
four sources of information:
practitioner expertise & judgment
evidence from the local context
critical evaluation of best available research data
perspective of those impacted by decision
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lecture #11 - management learning