Consultation
Thompson, C.L. & Henderson, D. A. (2011). Consultation. In
Counseling Children, 8th Edition. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole
Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of
Thomson Learning
Individual Consultation
Consultant
Consultee
Client
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of
Thomson Learning
Individual Consultation
Consultant
Consultee
Client
Consultant
Consultee
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of
Thomson Learning
Group Consultation
Client
Consultant
Consultee
Client
Client
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of
Thomson Learning
Mental Health Consultation

Client-centered case consultation

Consultee-centered case consultation

Program-centered administrative consultation

Consultee-centered administrative consultation
◦ Usually type of individual consultation with focus on
client’s skill deficits.
◦ Usually type of individual consultation with focus on
consultee’s skill deficits.
◦ Usually type of group consultation with focus on
client/group’s skill deficits.
◦ Usually type of group consultation with focus on
consultee’s skill deficits.
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of
Thomson Learning
Myrick’s approach
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Identify the problem clearly.
Clarify the situation.
Determine the desired outcome.
Gather any needed information.
Develop a plan of action.
Evaluate and revise as needed.
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of
Thomson Learning
Collaboration
collaborator
collaborator
Client
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of
Thomson Learning
School Consultation
Erchul, W. P., & Martens, B. K. (2002). Chapter 2: Promoting change in
schools. In School Consultation: Conceputal and Empirical Bases of
Practice, Second Edition. New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Definitions of Change

Alterations of
◦ Beliefs
◦ Attitudes
◦ Behaviors

Within
◦ Children
◦ Adolescents
◦ Adults
Definition of Indirect Services


Services provided to the client through another person or agent.
Examples:
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
Consultation
Pre-referral Intervention
In-service Training
Program Evaluation
Research
Areas in Need of Change



Third-party adult may lack or fail to
demonstrate essential skills needed to
change the client.
Third-party adult may hold unrealistic beliefs
that keep them from trying to change the
client (e.g., children with disabilities
cannot….).
Third-party adult may have unusual attitudes
towards the child (e.g., stereotyping) and/or
the service (e.g., special education will
magically fix the problem, I cannot provide
special services in my classroom).
Consultation




Consultant directs the
experience
Based on a respectful,
cooperative relationship.
Process depends upon one
persons ability to use social
power to effect change in
another.
Works within the strengths
and weaknesses of
consultee.
Collaboration
Both parties share power
 Based on a respectful,
cooperative relationship.
 Process depends upon
individuals working
collectively to solve
problems.
 Works within the strengths
and weaknesses of all
parties.

Consultation Vs. Collaboration
Strategies for Change:
Chinn and Benne

Empirical-rational
approach
◦ Change will happen when
consultee sees the need.
◦ “Knowledge is Power”

Normative-Reeducative
◦ Change happens because
the consultee sees the
need and sees that others
value it.
◦ “Knowledge and People
are Power”

Power-Coercive
Approach
◦ Change happens because
of guilt or sanctions.
Types of Social Power





Coercive Power: change happens because of
perceived punishment.
Reward Power: change happens because of
perceived reward.
Legitimate Power: change happens because
power is given based on professional role or
position.
Expert / Informational Power: change
happens because of perceived expertise or
increase knowledge.
Referent Power: change happens because of a
desire to be like the other person and/ or
because of a perceived personal connection.
What Makes Change in Schools?

Two most effective power sources for
consultation in schools.
◦ Expert / Informational Power
◦ Referent Power

Most effective power sources for
administration in schools.
◦ Coercive Power
◦ Reward Power
◦ Legitimate Power
Consultation Transcripts
Conoley, J. C., & Conoley, C. W. (1992). Appendix A. In School
consultation: Practice and training, Second edition. Boston: Allyn and
Bacon.
Assignment for Discussion
Read through the transcripts provided in
the readings on electronic reserves.
 This week’s discussion should be about
these transcripts, and how they relate to
the topics discussed in the consultation
lecture.

Download

Mental Health Consultation Client-centered case